Confucius: The Analects, trans. D. C. Lau (London: Penguin, 1979), pp. 133–34, 149.
For a discussion of the historiographic issues of Chinese women's history, see Susan
Mann, Precious Records: Women in China's Long Eighteenth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997), pp. 1–18, 201–26; Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the
Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993),
pp. 1–20. For samples of musicological discussions, see Carol Robertson, “Power and Gender in the Musical Experiences of Women, ” in Musicology and Difference, ed. Ellen Koskoff
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); Ruth Solie, Musicology and Difference: Gender and
Sexuality in Music Scholarship (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Mu Yang, “Music and Sexual Customs in Multi—Ethnic China, ” Asian Studies Review 18, no. 2 (1994): 63–144;
Nora Yeh, “Wisdom of Ignorance: Women Performers in the Classical Chinese Music Traditions, ” in Women, Gender, and Culture, ed. Marcia Herndon and Susanne Ziegler (Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag, 1990); and Su Zheng, “Female Heroes and Moonish
Lovers: Women's Paradoxical Identities in Modern Chinese Songs, ” Journal of Women's History 8, no. 4 (1997): 91–125.
“Yueji, ” in Liji, in Baihua shisanjing (The Thirteen Classics, with vernacular translation)
(Beijing: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi, 1996). “Yueshu, ” in Sima Qian, Shiji (Beijing:
Zhonghua shuju, 1962). The modern reprint used by the present author is Yuejipizhu (The
record of music, annotated edition) (Beijing: Renmin yinyue chubanshe, 1976). A convenient
collection of Chinese reference materials is Yueji lunbian (The record of music, with critical
translations and comments) (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1983). For an introduction in English, see Scott Cook, “Yue Ji—Record of Music: Introduction, Translation, Notes, and
Commentary, ” Asian Music 26, no. 2 (1995): 1–96.
Ji Liankang, ed., Qin Hanyinyue shiliao (Music sources of the Qin and Han dynasties)
(Shanghai: Shanghai Wenyi chubanshe, 1981), pp. 61–62, 81–82. The Offices of Zhou, also
known as the Rites of Zhou, is a description of the administrative structures of the royal state
Suishu (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1975), 13.3286.
“Yueben bian, ” in Yueji pizhu, p. 7.
“Yueli bian, ” in Yueji pizhu, p. 23.
“Yueyan bian, ” in Yueji pizhu, p. 39.
“Wei Wenhou bian, ” in Yueji pizhu, p. 60.
Cheng Junying, Shijingyizhu (Book of odes, with translations and annotations) (Shanghai: Guji chubanshe, 1985), pp. 149, 153. What these images signify is a vexing question. Some
Confucian scholars explained the images away as sheer allegories, reading the amorous relationship between man and woman as an allegory for intimacy between ruler and subject.
The purpose here, however, is not Odes hermeneutics but retrieving hints of female music.
Ji Liankang, ed., Chunqiu zhanguoyinyue shiliao (Music sources of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods) (Shanghai: Wenyi chubanshe, 1980), pp. 2–3, 13–14.
Ji Liankang, ed., Lüshi chunqiu zhong diyinyue shiliao (Music sources in the Spring and
Autumn of Master Lü) (Shanghai: Wenyi chubanshe, 1983), p. 34.