Inventing the Criminal: A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

By Richard F. Wetzell | Go to book overview

CHAPTER ONE

THE ORIGINS OF MODERN CRIMINOLOGY

German criminology emerged as a recognized scientific field in the last quarter of the nineteenth century as a result of three interconnected developments: the emergence of a new German penal reform movement, the publication and reception of Cesare Lombroso's theory of the "born criminal," and an increasing interest in criminological questions among German psychiatrists. First, however, I will provide a brief survey of criminological research in the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century because some familiarity with this background is essential for properly assessing the developments that took place at the end of the century. On the one hand, the existence of medical-biological explanations of crime earlier in the nineteenth century shows that Lombroso was not the first to advance such an explanation. On the other hand, the substantial amount of work in "moral statistics" and on the subculture of professional criminals demonstrates that nineteenth-century researchers paid far more attention to social than to biological factors in crime. Only if this is understood can one appreciate the drastic shift in emphasis from social to medical-biological explanations of crime that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century.

Before setting out on this brief survey, I should point out that the origins of criminology are a matter of debate. Some scholars regard the psychiatrist Lombroso, whose book on the born criminal appeared in 1876, as the founder of criminology, 1. while others argue that modern criminology originated with Ce‐

____________________
1.
David Matza, Delinquency and Drift (New York: Wiley, 1964), 3; David Garland, Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies (Aldershot: Gower, 1985), 77; Pasquale Pasquino, "Criminology: The Birth of a Special Knowledge," in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, ed. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 235-50.

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Inventing the Criminal: A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.