Despite the considerable advances in criminal sociology discussed in the previous chapter, research in this field was overshadowed by what came to be known as "criminal biology" during the Weimar years. The predominance of medico‐ biological over sociological research on the causes of crime that had begun with the late nineteenth-century reception of Lombroso was bolstered by an enormous expansion of psychiatric research on the causes of crime in the 1920s.
The great interest in criminological research among psychiatrists was closely connected to several broader developments in early twentieth-century German psychiatry. Most fundamentally, psychiatrists became increasingly concerned with the welfare and protection of society as a whole rather than the individual patient. 1. Moreover, psychiatric research on the connection between crime and mental abnormalities was part of psychiatry's expansion beyond full-fledged mental illness into the vast area of borderline abnormalities. 2. Both of these developments had begun in the prewar years, but they were greatly accelerated by the role that German psychiatry played in the war effort and therefore became more salient during the Weimar Republic. 3. In addition, psychiatric____________________