absolute participle. Present or past participle that functions as a preposition or an adverb and therefore does not have a grammatical subject. Examples: Barring an unanticipated delay, the library will reopen in September. Depending on the price, we might increase our order. Granted these exceptions, the new policy takes effect immediately. Comparedangling modifier.
active voice. Grammatical form in which the doer of the verb is stated. Examples: She fired two shots. He authorized the break-in. TopCo laid off fifty workers. In contrast, in the passive voice the recipient of the action conveyed by the verb is stated. Examples: Shots were fired. A break-in was authorized. Fifty workers were laid off.
adjective. Word that modifies (i.e., describes, limits, or qualifies) a noun by stating a characteristic or a quantity. Examples: a green pencil; a fair-weather friend; Canadian cheese; three books; a few pointers. See alsoattributive adjective; compound adjective; coordinate adjective; noncoordinate adjective; predicate adjective; proper adjective.
adverb. Word that modifies (i.e., describes, limits, or qualifies) an adjective, verb, or another adverb. Adverbs indicate “time, place, manner, or degree”—that is, when, where, or how an action is performed—or specify the extent or degree of an adjective. Examples: She is very smart. We cut the tubes precisely. That is a rather strange view. I am leaving now. Put your books here.See alsosentence adverb.
adverbial clause. Dependent clause that functions like an adverb; it may