Natural Conflict Resolution

By Filippo Aureli; Frans B. M. De Waal | Go to book overview

Introduction

Conflict resolution takes place in the larger context of ecology and culture. To understand how and why conflict resolution techniques evolved and how these techniques reflect the demands of society in a given context, we need to investigate the environmental pressures. In this section, several authors attempt to outline this larger framework for both humans and other animals.

Van Schaik and Aureli start out, in Chapter 15, explaining why animals live in groups and how, within these groups, enduring alliances are formed. Like team sports, alliances bridge the gap between cooperation and competition in that they are cooperative contracts that individuals enter into for the sake of competition: alliances provide a competitive edge. Because these contracts are so valuable, the relationships are serviced by means of grooming and reconciliation after fights. The concept of social relationship, so central in primate research, is highlighted by these authors by reviewing various forms of valuable relationships that may differ between the sexes and between adults and immatures. Some of their points are illustrated by the case of the muriqui, an endangered neotropical primate studied in the field by Strier, Carvalho, and Bejar, who in Box 15.1 describe their remarkably peaceful society. Females keep their distance from one another, thus avoiding competition, and males establish close bonds in which conflicts are minimized for the sake of group solidarity. They need to maintain a united front in the face of competition with neighbors.

Pereira and Kappeler, in Box 15.2, compare two member species of an early branch on the primate tree and examine the complementarity

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Natural Conflict Resolution
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Why Natural Conflict Resolution? 3
  • References *
  • Part I - History 11
  • Introduction 13
  • Chapter 2 - Foundations of Conflict Resolution Research in Animals 15
  • References *
  • Chapter 3 - Conflict Management in Children and Adolescents 34
  • References *
  • Chapter 4 - Searching for Natural Conflict Resolution in Homo Sapiens 54
  • References *
  • Part II - Controlling Aggression 71
  • Introduction 73
  • Chapter 5 - Conflict Management in Various Social Settings 77
  • References *
  • Chapter 6 - Covariation of Conflict Management Patterns Across Macaque Species 106
  • References *
  • Chapter 7 - Coping with Crowded Conditions 129
  • References *
  • Chapter 8 - The Peacefulness of Cooperatively Breeding Primates 155
  • References *
  • Part III - Repairing the Damage 171
  • Introduction 173
  • Chapter 9 - Reconciliation and Relationship Qualities 177
  • References 196
  • Chapter 10 - The Role of Emotion in Conflict and Conflict Resolution 199
  • References 219
  • Chapter 11 - Expanding the Reconciliation Horizon 225
  • References *
  • Chapter 12 - A Multicultural View of Peacemaking Among Young Children 243
  • References *
  • Part IV - Triadic Affairs 259
  • Introduction 261
  • Chapter 13 - Post-Conflict Affiliation of the Aggressor 263
  • References *
  • Chapter 14 - How Targets of Aggression Interact with Bystanders 281
  • References *
  • Part V - Ecological and Cultural Contexts 303
  • Introduction 305
  • Chapter 15 - The Natural History of Valuable Relationships in Primates 307
  • References 327
  • Chapter 16 - Conflict Management in Cross-Cultural Perspective 334
  • References *
  • Chapter 17 - The Evolution and Development of Morality 352
  • References *
  • Conclusion 373
  • Chapter 18 - Shared Principles and Unanswered Questions 375
  • Appendixes 381
  • Appendix A - The Occurrence of Reconciliation in Nonhuman Primates 383
  • References *
  • Appendix B - Key Terms Used in the Volume 387
  • References *
  • Contributors 389
  • Index 391
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