Policing Africa: Internal Security and the Limits of Liberalization

By Alice Hills | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Many areas of Uganda experienced widespread riots immediately after independence that had to be controlled by large deployments of police and units from the King's African Rifles.
2
The United States provided for general duties, India for traffic control and accident investigation, Australia police administration, and Kenya CID.
3
Herbert Karugaba, “The Role of the Uganda Police Force in the Criminal Justice System of Uganda, unpublished paper. This can be compared to the state of emergency declared in western Sudan, ostensibly to curb armed robbery and lawlessness in the late 1990s. The decree effectively empowers Sudan's police, army, and other security agents to deal with suspects and directs the formulation of instant courts to dispense swift justice. See Sudan Update 9: 1 (13 January 1998), 1.
4
Africa Research Bulletin and Africa Diary provide excellent material on security developments. The former is especially useful for identifying cycles of repression and reform in the police.
5
Tibamanya mwene Mushanga, “Twenty Years of State Violence in Uganda, in Tibamanya mwene Mushanga, ed., Criminology in Africa (Rome: UNICRI, 1992), 60. In 1972 the Ministry of Internal Affairs was brought under the umbrella of the Ministry of Defence so that the police and prison services would not be able to act as independent forces.
6
An administrative police, under the district administrators and intended to strengthen security in rural areas, was also announced. Africa Research Bulletin 26: 2 (1989), 9154.
7
Ibid., 30: 5 (1993), 11009. See also ibid. 30: 1 (1993), 10851.
8
New African, quoted in ibid. 33: 3 (1996), 12206.
9
George Thomas Kurian, World's Encyclopaedia of Police Forces and Penal Systems (Oxford: Facts on File, 1989), 389. The ratio is important because crimes are not reported in areas without police stations; the crime rate is usually directly proportional to the ratio of police to the population.
10
D. W. Love, “Final Report of the British Police Training Team Seconded to Uganda from 16 October 1988 to 5 May 1989, West Midlands Police, 1989, 14. See also Metropolitan Police, “Report of British Police Training Team in Uganda, April–November 1989, Metropolitan Police Force, 1989.
11
“The British view is that help in rebuilding the Ugandan police force is far more valuable than the usual areas into which aid is poured in third world countries. Daily Telegraph, 10 Sept. 1979. This no longer appears to be the case.
12
Richard Edyegu, “To Review the Operational Policing Problems Within the Uganda Police with Respect to the Strategic Statement of Aims; to Make Comparisons with Selected Other Countries; and to Make Recommendations, unpublished paper, Overseas Command Course, the Police Staff College, Bramshill, England (1994), 11.
13
Ibid., 20.
14
Given the total staffing levels of the national force, this represents a considerable concentration.
15
Edyegu, “To Review, 15.
16
Quoted in J. Oloka-Onyango, “The Dynamics of Corruption Control and Human Rights Enforcement in Uganda: The Case of the Inspector General of Government, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights 1: 1 (1993), 23–51. Oloka-Onyango argues that some human rights abuses are lawfully committed,

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