The author's work in Angola was possible thanks to a Christian Children's
Fund (CCF) consultancy in 1997/1998. The Angolan data presented in this article were
collected by the author and by members of the CCF team in Angola.
E. Hall, “The Mozambican National Resistance Movement (Renamo) and the
Reestablishment of Peace in Mozambique, ” paper delivered at a workshop on Security and Cooperation in Post-Apartheid Southern Africa, Maputo, Sept. 1991. J. Honwana, “The United Nations and Mozambique: A Sustainable Peace?” Lumiar Papers
No. 7 (Lisbon: Instituto de Estudos Estrategicos e Internacionais, 1995).
R. Gersony, “Summary of Refugee Accounts of Principally Conflict Related
Experiences in Mozambique” (Washington, DC: Bureau for Refugee Programs, State
Department, 1988); A. Vines, Renamo: Terrorism in Mozambique (London: Centre for
Southern African Studies, University of York and Indiana University Press, 1991).
C. Geffray, La Cause des armes au Mozambique: Anthropologie d'une guerre
civile (Paris: Credu-Karthala, 1990).
United Nations, The United Nations and Mozambique, 1992–1995 (Blue
Book Series) (New York: UN Department of Public Information, 1995).
Vines, Renamo; W. Minter, Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of
War in Angola and Mozambique (London: Zed Books, 1994).
Human Rights Watch, Easy Prey: Children and War in Liberia (London:
Human Rights Watch Children's Project, 1994).
Minter, Apartheid's Contras; UN Development Program, Relatorio do Desenvolvimento Humano, Angola (1997).
Minter, Apartheid's Contras.
O. Furley, “Child Soldiers in Africa, ” in O. Furley (ed.), Conflict in Africa
(London: Tauris, 1995).
Author interview, identity withheld, Ilha Josina, Mozambique, Apr. 1999.
Furley, “Child Soldiers. ”
See Geffray, La Cause des armes.
Author interview, identity withheld, Huambo, Angola, Feb. 1998.
A. Honwana, “Okusiakala Ondalo Okalye (Let's Light a New Fire): Local
Knowledge in the Post-War Healing and Reintegration of War-Affected Children in
Angola, ” research report for Christian Children's Fund, Luanda, Angola, 1999.
Author interview, “Ben, ” Malanje, Angola, Feb. 1998. Ben served as a
UNITA soldier and was demobilized in 1997.
A. Honwana, “Negotiating Post-War Identities: Child Soldiers in Mozambique and Angola, ” CODESRIA Bulletin 1/2 (1999); Paul Richards, Fighting for the
Rain Forest: War, Youth and Resources in Sierra Leone (Oxford: James Currey, 1996);
Furley, “Child Soldiers. ”
Author interview, identity withheld, Ilha Josina, Mozambique, May 1999.
Interview conducted by the CCF team in Angola, identity withheld, Kuito,
C. Dodge and M. Raundalen, Reaching Children in War: Sudan, Uganda and
Mozambique (Uppsala: Sigma Forlag, 1991); R. Brett and M. McCallin, Children, the
Invisible Soldiers (Växjö, Sweden: Rädda Barnen [Swedish Save the Children], 1996);
I. Abdullah, “Violence, Youth Culture and War: A Critical Reading of Paul Richards, ”