Local Communities and Post-Communist Transformation: Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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4
Collective bargaining is regulated by Act no. 2/1991 on collective bargaining. This Act shapes the collective bargaining process between trade unions and employers, defining a collective agreement as 'a bilaterally drawn up document which is legally binding and determines the individual and collective relations between employees and employers as the rights and responsibilities of social partners'.
5
On the other hand it should be noted that a high share of foreign direct investment in neighbouring countries was channelled into the so-called natural monopolies, which were still owned by the state in the relevant period in Slovakia. The sale of even minority stakes in these companies would produce a change in this indicator in favour of Slovakia, since such one-off capital inflows have already occurred in the other countries. The post-1998 government approved a new strategy which openly supports the entry of foreign capital.
6
Source: Social Trends in the Slovak Republic 2000.
7
Source: Employment in the Economy of the Slovak Republic entrepreneurial reporting data.
8
Source: The Ministry of the Economy of the Slovak Republic.
9
Source: OECD figures.
10
Source: National Labour Office.
11
As early as the 1950s Japanese researcher Odaka Kunio (Odaka 1953) revealed the predominance of workers with 'dual identity', based on empirical surveys of workers' attitudes. More recent research projects led by Akihiro Ishikawa have analysed international data obtained from the Denki Roren research project in 1984–5 (Ishikawa 1992) and (together with C. le Grand) from the Denki Rengo research project in 1995 (Ishikawa et al. 2000) in an attempt to ascertain whether 'dual identity' is universal in modern society or particular to Japan.
12
Education and training schemes operated by both firms consist of introductory courses for newly employed blue-collar staff lasting from one week to six months, and for newly employed technical staff usually six months. Internal company training is also organised for more experienced staff. In the past five years approximately 60 per cent of blue-collar workers, 90 per cent of technical staff and 100 per cent of managers have participated in training courses of at least a week. The content of training, its length and the selection of participants are determined by management.

Bibliography

Bulletin Štatistického úradu SR [Bulletin of the Slovak Statistical Office] (1995) 12.

Čambáliková, M.(1996) 'K otázke občianskej participácie v transformujúcom sa Slovensku', Sociológia vol. 28 no. 1: 51–5.

Čambáliková, M.(1997) 'Utváranie občianstva zamestnancov a zamestnávatel'ov' in Roško, R., Macháček, L. and Čambáliková, M. Občan a transformácia, Bratislava: SAV: 100–34.

Dahrendorf, R. (1991) Moderný sociálny konflikt, Bratislava: ARCHA.

Giddens, A. (1999) Sociologie, Praha: Argo.

Ishikawa, A. (1992) 'Patterns of Work Identity in the Firm and Plant: An East–West Comparison', in Szell, G. (ed.) Labour Relations in Transition in Eastern Europe, Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

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