Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature

By Kathy J. Whitson | Go to book overview

References and Suggested Readings
Fitz, Earl E. “Clarice Lispector.” Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 113: Modern Latin-American Fiction Writers. Ed. William Luis. 30 August 2003 .
Lispector, Clarice. Near to the Wild Heart. 1944. Trans. Giovanni Pontiero. New York: New Directions, 1990.

See also Barnes, Djuna; Woolf, Virginia.

LORDE, AUDRE

A self-identified “black lesbian feminist warrior poet, ” the African American writer and activist Audre Lorde boldly explored her multiple identities as female, black, and gay in her writing. She used the term “sister-outsider” to describe her experience as a member of multiple, different, and often incompatible social groups. Lorde was accomplished in a variety of genres, including poetry, autobiography, and the political/personal essay. All of her writing combines a poet's lyricism with a strong sense of political consciousness. As she put it, “The question of social protest and art is inseparable for me.”

Born in New York City on February 18, 1934, Lorde grew up in Harlem, the youngest of three daughters of West Indian parents from Grenada and Barbados. She received a BA degree from Hunter College and a master's degree in Library Science from Columbia University. After working as a librarian for the City University of New York for several years, she taught creative writing at Tougaloo College in Mississippi and at John Jay College and Hunter College in New York. In 1962, Lorde married lawyer Edwon Ashley Rollins, and they had a son and a daughter together. Following their divorce a decade later, Lorde began having long-term relationships with women.

Lorde published her first book of poetry, The First Cities, in 1968. Her second volume of poetry, Cables to Rage (1970), contains her first explicit representation of eroticism between women. Following the publication of two more volumes of poetry, Lorde finally gained a wider audience when the mainstream publishing house W. W. Norton brought out Coal (1976), a compilation that included poems from her first two, hard-to-find books and featured jacket copy by another Norton author, the white lesbian feminist poet Adrienne Rich. Lorde's finest volume of poetry is widely regarded: The Black Unicorn (1978), which explores her identity as a black woman and a lesbian, and draws on African themes and images. In 1980, she published The Cancer Journals, a courageous account of her struggle with the disease.

Her best-known prose work is Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982), a fictionalized chronicle of Lorde's coming of age as a lesbian and a poet. Lorde referred to Zami as “biomythography” rather than autobiography, emphasizing both the mythic and communal elements of her personal story. Lorde's essays and speeches on a variety of political and personal themes are collected in Sister Out-

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Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents v
  • List of Entries vii
  • Introduction ix
  • A 1
  • References and Suggested Readings 3
  • References and Suggested Readings 7
  • References and Suggested Readings 13
  • References and Suggested Readings 17
  • References and Suggested Readings 20
  • References and Suggested Readings 24
  • B 33
  • References and Suggested Readings 35
  • References and Suggested Readings 44
  • References and Suggested Readings 48
  • C 56
  • D 72
  • References and Suggested Readings 78
  • E 80
  • F 82
  • References and Suggested Readings 91
  • References and Suggested Readings 95
  • G 96
  • References and Suggested Readings 105
  • H 106
  • References and Suggested Readings 116
  • References and Suggested Readings 123
  • I 124
  • J 125
  • K 132
  • L 140
  • References and Suggested Readings 144
  • References and Suggested Readings 146
  • M 150
  • References and Suggested Readings 176
  • N 177
  • References and Suggested Readings 186
  • O 187
  • P 193
  • References and Suggested Readings 201
  • References and Suggested Readings 205
  • R 206
  • References and Suggested Readings 207
  • References and Suggested Readings 212
  • S 213
  • References and Suggested Readings 220
  • References and Suggested Readings 221
  • References and Suggested Readings 226
  • References and Suggested Readings 232
  • References and Suggested Readings 243
  • Y 244
  • References and Suggested Readings 249
  • References and Suggested Readings 250
  • W 251
  • References and Suggested Readings 256
  • References and Suggested Readings 284
  • Y 285
  • Index 293
  • About the Author 301
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