A Race against Time: The Crisis in Urban Schooling

By James G.Cibulka; William Lowe Boyd | Go to book overview
Save to active project


Urban Education-Reform Strategies

comparative analysis and conclusions


IN THE INTRODUCTION we indicated that three governance-reform strategies tend to dominate discussions of urban school reform: systems reform, strong mayoral roles, and external intervention. To varying degrees, each of these strategies is linked to the principle of accountability, which we define as responsiveness to external authority and control. Each strategy makes somewhat different assumptions about how accountability forces will improve urban school systems.

We noted, however, that in practice, policy-makers tend to mix strategies. 1 All of the urban school systems we know of—certainly the ones discussed in this book—are experimenting with some combination of these approaches. The convergence of reform efforts around a relatively finite set of strategies reflects the emergence of school reform as a national problem that has engaged the public, policy experts, civic elites, the media, and politicians. Because policy discussions have taken on a national character, on the surface, the language of reform used across the cities looks quite similar. Yet once one moves beyond a superficial rhetorical level, the experiences of each city with reform are quite variable. The social, political, and institutional contexts of the cities have led to many different approaches to these strategies.

Recognizing that each city is in some respects unique, in this chapter we try to look for common threads and generalizations. We see our task here as employing the cases to provide evidence of the respective


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Race against Time: The Crisis in Urban Schooling


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 248

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?