Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists

By David W. Del Testa | Go to book overview

Index
Note: Page numbers in boldface indicate subjects of articles.
a
A
Abbas, 152
Abbasid dynasty, 152, 163, 191
Abdulla, King of Jordan, 106
Abdullah, 191
abolitionism. See antislavery
Absalom, 48
absolute monarchy
Britain, 45
France, 32, 111, 131, 145, 155
Prussia, 24, 64
Russia, 33, 90, 91, 145
Abu Bakr, First Caliph of Islam, 192
Abu Lulua, 192
Abzug, Bella, 65, 172
Accion Radical Orthodoxo (Cuba), 31
Acre, Christian reconquest of (1191), 154, 163
Acropolis, 143
Actium, battle of (31 B.C.E.), 14, 40
Act of Supremacy (Britain; 1559), 60, 79
Adams, John, 3, 93
Adams, John Quincy, 3
Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 124
Adelaide, Queen of Italy, 139
Aden, 22
Adenauer, Konrad, 4, 166
Adid, Fatimid ruler, 191
administrative structure
Asante, 138
Austrian Empire, 119
Babylon, 74
Britain, 57, 197
Carolingian Empire, 35
China, ancient, 169
Chinese Ming dynasty, 86
Cuba, 31
Eastern Roman Christianity, 43
Egypt, 125, 132, 161
France, 111, 155
Greco-Macedonian Empire, 7
Holy Roman Empire, 36
Holy Roman Empire's weakness, 63
Inca Empire, 141, 184
India, 5, 11, 16, 30
Islamic Empire, 192
Napoleonic Empire, 131
Norman Conquest, 197
Ottoman Empire, 123, 175
Persian Empire, 47
Ptolemaic model, 40
Roman Empire, 40, 43, 55, 73, 118
Russian Empire, 91, 145
Soviet Union, 107
Spanish New World colonies, 44, 147 ,
Timur's holdings, 180
Adowa, battle of (1896), 124
Aegean Sea, 47
Aelius, Lucius, 73
Aeneid (Virgil), 14
Aeschylus, 143
aesthetics, 28
Afghanistan
ancient conquests of, 5, 7, 16, 30
Soviet invasion of, 27, 84, 162
Africa
Belgian empire, 108
European colonies, 108, 110, 116, 124, 129, 136, 137, 153, 168, 198
Fatimid Empire, 191
independence movements, 98, 102, 108, 129, 136, 137, 153
Mfecane disruption, 168
negritude philosophy, 167
Portuguese coastal exploration, 80
slave trade, 28, 110, 116
Songhay Empire, 116, 176
unity movement, 136
Zulu nation, 168
See also black Africans;
specific countries, people, and regions
African Americans
accomodationist strategy, 194
African nationalism, 98
civil rights movement, 66, 93, 102, 109, 114, 194
court-ordered desegregation, 58
discrimination, 158
leaders, 102, 114, 194
New Deal policies, 159
See also slavery
African National Congress, 23, 53, 115, 168, 190
Afrikaners, 153
Afrocentrism, 114
Aghlabid dynasty, 191
Agincourt, battle of (1415), 94
agrarianism, 93, 113, 195, 202
agriculture
Austria, 119
Cambodia, 148
China, 54, 117
India, 133
Jeffersonian view of, 93
New World, 44, 147
Prussia, 64
Russia, 134
Soviet Union, 101, 171
Tanzania, 137
Zimbabwe, 129
Aisha, 192
Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of (1748), 119
Akbar, Emperor of Mughals, 5, 16
Akihito, Emperor of Japan, 82
Albania, 123
Albanians (ethnic), 181
Albret, Jeanne d', 78
Alcuin, 35
Alençon, Duke d', 78
Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, 6, 17, 33
Alexander III (the Great), King of Macedonia, 7, 30, 40, 46
Alexander III, Pope, 63, 66
Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, 107, 134
Alexander Nevsky Monastery, 104
Alexandra, Tsarina of Russia, 134
Alexandria (Egypt), 7, 40
Alexandrian War (47 B.C.E), 40
Alexei, Crown Prince of Russia (eighteenth century), 145
Alexei, Crown Prince of Russia (twentieth century), 134
Algeciras Conference (1906), 198
Algeria, 51, 84, 192
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (U.S.), 3, 93, 113
Allies (World War I), 11, 18, 24, 34, 199
Allies (World War II)
Chinese aid, 37
defeat of Italy, 130
defeat of Japan, 82, 84, 182
division of Germany, 4
peace negotiations, 38
Spanish neutrality, 61
supreme commander, 58
unity and conflicts, 159, 188
Almagro, Diego de, 147
alphabet, 12
Alps, 13, 139
Alsace-Lorraine, 166
Alva, Duke of, 146
Amazon region, 85, 184
ambassadorships. See diplomacy
Amenhotep IV, Pharaoh of Egypt, 151
American Civil War (186-165), 6, 93, 109
American Railway Union, 48
American Revolution (1776-83), 3, 62, 93, 113, 195
American Woman Suffrage Association, 8
Americas. See New World
Amerindians
Aztec Empire, 36, 44, 127
disease decimation, 44, 85, 105, 147
Inca Empire, 85, 141, 147, 184, 189
Peruvian revolt, 189
Spanish forced conversions, 44, 146
Spanish forced labor, 44, 105, 147
Spanish missionary protector, 105, 146
U.S. reservation system, 95
Amin, Idi, 137
Amnesty International, 22
Amritsar Massacre (1919), 66
anarchism, 17, 41, 121
Anastasia, Tsarina of Russia, 91
Anatolia, 123, 175
Anaxagoras, 143
ANC. See African National Congress
ancestor worship, 88
ancient Rome. See Roman Empire;
Roman Republic
Anderson, Marian, 158
Andes, 85, 141, 164, 189
Angkor Wat (Cambodia), 178
Anglicanism, 36, 45, 60, 69, 77
Dissenters from, 200
establishment of, 79
South African anti-apartheid, 190
Anglo-Arabian Cooperation Treaty (1915), 165
Anglo-Saxons, 197
Angola, 31, 110
animal sacrifice, 11
animism, 176
Ankara, battle of (1402), 180
Anne of Austria, Queen Regent of France, 111
Anthony, Susan Brownell, 8
anticommunism
Germany, 4
Spain, 61
United States, 58, 120
Antietam, battle of (1862), 109
antimonarchism, 3
Antioch, 163
anti-Semitism, 89, 103
France, 39, 81, 92
Nazi Germany, 83
See also Holocaust
antislavery movement
Britain, 28, 110
France, 52
United States, 3, 8, 109
antitrust, 160, 199
antiwar activists
Vietnam War, 41, 49, 102, 172
World War I, 92, 112
Antonius Pius, Emperor of Rome, 73, 118
Antony, Marc, 14, 40
apartheid, 23, 53, 102, 168
Anglican opposition, 190
basis of, 153
segregation categories, 115
Aper, 55
Apostles, 48
Appomattox, surrender at (1865), 109
“April Theses” of 1917 (Lenin), 107
Aqabah, capture of (1917), 106
Aquitaine, duchy of, 59, 154
Arabian Peninsula, 128, 192
Abbasid Caliphate, 152
See also Saudi Arabia
Arab-Israeli conflict, 9, 18, 21
Egypt, 132, 161
first peace treaty, 19, 161
Islamic fundamentalists, 161
Arab-Israeli War (1948-49), 9, 21, 81, 132
Arabists, 20, 106
Arab League, 192
Arab Revolt of 1914-18, 106
Arab Revolt of 1936, 81
Arabs
Crusades against, 59, 63, 123, 154, 163
culture, 20, 106, 152
Islamic unification of, 128, 192
nationalism, 20, 87, 106, 132, 192
Palestinian, 9, 18, 19, 81
sectarianism, 128
See also Islam;
specific countries
Arafat, Yasir, 9, 19, 81, 84
Aragon, 89
architecture
Athens, 143
Egypt, 151
India, 5
Weimar Republic, 198
Areopagus (Athens), 143
Argentina, 144, 164
Arianism, 43
Arias Sánchez, Oscar, 10, 157
Aris, Michael, 15
aristocracy
France, 32, 111, 131, 155
Spain, 146
See also monarchy;
nobility
Aristophanes, 143
Aristotle, 7
Ark of the Covenant, 48
Armenia, 73, 118, 124, 152
arms control and disarmament, 18, 27, 162
Armstrong, Samuel, 194
army. See military listings
Arriaga, Antonio de, 189
Arthurian legend, 59
Articles of Confederation (U.S.), 195
arts
Athens, 143
Britain, 154 arts (continued)

-231-

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Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Listing of Biographies iv
  • Introduction v
  • The Biographies 1
  • Appendices, Bibliography, and Index 203
  • Appendix One 205
  • Appendix Two 213
  • Appendix Three 219
  • Bibliography 225
  • Index 231
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