On 25 November 1975, a state of emergency was declared in Lisbon Military District of Portugal following days of violent demonstrations against the provisional government. The provisional government had been formed by the Armed Forces Movement (AFM) when the fourth coalition government fell on 17 July. On 21 November, the rioting had forced the AFM provisional government to suspend operations. By 24 November, fighting had broken out between government forces and communist rebels in and around Lisbon. The next day President Francisco da Costa Gomes declared the state of emergency. When order had been restored on 27 November, the president dismissed a number of senior left-wing military officers, including the Army chief of staff, General Carlos Fabião, and Admiral Antonio Rosa Coutinho. Coutinho's ouster sparked new rioting in which left-wing rebels captured four air force bases in northern and central Portugal. Order was quickly restored (28 November).
Fadlallah, Muhammad Husayn.
The spiritual leader of Hizbullah (qv), a Lebanese religious (Sh'ia) terrorist organization, Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, was assassinated on 8 March 1985, when a bomb planted in his automobile detonated in front of his house in south Beirut. Eighty people were killed in the blast, and another 250 injured. An estimated 250 kilograms of explosive were used in the bomb. No one claimed credit for the attack.
Fahd ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Saud.
(b. 1922, Riyadh) On 13 June 1982, King Khalid ibn Abd-Aziz (qv) of Saudi Arabia died. Crown Prince Fahd, Khalid's half-brother, immediately succeeded him to the throne and became prime minister at the same time. Fahd was born the first son of Ibn Saud (qv) and his second wife, Hassa Sudairi. Fahd was proclaimed crown prince when Khalid took the throne upon the murder of King Faisal (qv) (1975). Fahd's reign was marked by the modernization of Saudi Arabian life, including new airports. Fahd also attempted a Middle East solution, but without much success. Fahd led his country through the Gulf crisis in 1991, when his country was the base for the Desert Storm operation.
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Publication information: Book title: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Contributors: John E. Jessup - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1998. Page number: 197.
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