Historical Encyclopedia of Atomic Energy

By Stephen E. Atkins | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Z

Zangger Committee

Inquiries about procedures for nuclear export controls from nuclear nations to nonnuclear states led to the formation of the Zangger Committee, or the Non-Proliferation Treaty Exporters Committee. Fears among the nuclear states about proliferation of nuclear weapons technology resulted in the formation of this committee in early 1974. It was in part a progression of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970. The committee was named after its chair, Claude Zangger, a Swiss official. Representatives from advanced industrial countries held a series of secret meetings to determine policy. This committee established a “Trigger List” of special nuclear materials that could only be exported under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. News of a nuclear test in India in May 1974 showed that this committee was not going to be effective unless a more active approach was undertaken. A larger, less secret London group formed the London Suppliers Guidelines to fill this void. The Zangger Committee meets in Vienna twice a year, and the deliberations are kept secret. By 1994, the Zangger Committee consisted of representatives from 29 nations. In 1999 the Zangger Committee is still active and includes all nuclear weapons states (23 nations are presented on the Zangger Committee) except for France and China. Both France and China refuse to cooperate on nuclear export controls.

Suggested reading: Congressional Quarterly, The Nuclear Age: Power, Proliferation and the Arms Race (Washington, DC: Author, 1984); Richard Kokoski, Technology and the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995); Leonard S. Spector, Mark G. McDonough, and Evan S. Medeiros, Tracking Nuclear Proliferation: A Guide to Maps and Charts, 1995 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1995).

-408-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Historical Encyclopedia of Atomic Energy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 492

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.