Multicultural Writers from Antiquity to 1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook

By Alba Amoia; Bettina L.Knapp | Go to book overview

CH'OE CH'IWŎN

(857-?)

Maurizio Riotto


BIOGRAPHY

Ch'oe Ch'iwŏn, one of Korea's greatest scholars, wrote under the pseudonym Koun (Solitary cloud). (Signature under a pseudonym is still today a common practice among Korean men of letters.) The Samguk sagi, a historic work completed in 1145, provides some information about Ch'oe's life. Accordingly, we know that he probably came from Kyŏngju, the capital of the kingdom of Silla, and that he was undoubtedly a precocious child of exceptional versatility. At the young age of twelve he was sent by his parents to study in China, in accordance with the widespread custom among the Korean literati of the past. Apparently, before he left for China, his father, who had intuited his enormous talent, threatened to disown him as his son if he did not distinguish himself in his studies. After only eight years of instruction, he passed the Chinese state examinations and obtained an administrative post (even foreigners could do so at that time in China), but resigned after a year in order to devote himself to further study. After three years of hunger and hardship, he finally was helped by a government official named Gao Pian, who assigned him a job in his own office. At the age of twenty-eight, Ch'oe returned to his native land. Certainly those long years spent in China marked his entire life, implanting in him notions of multiculturalism that would render him one of the most productive and open-minded Korean writers.

Returning to his homeland, he immediately became immersed in the heavy political climate that would soon bring about the end of the dynasty and the dissolution of the kingdom of Silla. Nevertheless, he succeeded in holding several important public positions and in 893 was named ambassador to China, a post he was prevented from reaching by bands of brigands infesting the territory of Silla, which was now on the brink of collapse.

In 894 he sent a petition to the queen, Chinsŏng (887-897), in which he

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Multicultural Writers from Antiquity to 1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface and Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Alcuin 13
  • Selective Bibliography 16
  • Apuleius 17
  • Selective Bibliography 19
  • Antonin Artaud 21
  • Selective Bibliography 24
  • Saint Auqustine of Hippo 25
  • Selective Bibliography 28
  • William Beckford 29
  • Selective Bibliography 33
  • MarÍa Luisa Bombal 34
  • Jorge Luis Borges 38
  • James Boswell 43
  • Selective Bibliography 46
  • Fredrika Bremer 47
  • Selective Bibliography 50
  • The Brownings: Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning 51
  • George Gordon Byron 56
  • LuÍs Vaz De CamÕes 60
  • Ch'Oe Ch'IwŎn 64
  • Paul Claudel 67
  • Joseph Conrad 71
  • Stephen Crane 75
  • RubÉn DarÍo 79
  • Selective Bibliography 82
  • Alexandra David-Neel 83
  • Selective Bibliography 86
  • Charles Dickens 87
  • Selective Bibliography 90
  • Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen) 91
  • Selective Bibliography 94
  • Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky 95
  • Selective Bibliography 99
  • Pierre Drieula Rochelle 101
  • George Eliot (Mary Anne, Later Mary Ann and Marian, Evans) 106
  • Selective Bibliography 109
  • Erasmus (Desiderius Erasmus Rotterdamus) 110
  • Gustave Flaubert 114
  • E.M.Forster 118
  • Margaret Fuller 122
  • George Gemistos Plethon 127
  • Selective Bibliography 130
  • AndrÉ Gide 131
  • Selective Bibliography 134
  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe 135
  • Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol 140
  • Carlo Goldoni 144
  • Knut Pedersen Hamsun 148
  • The Hawthornes: Nathaniel Hawthorne and Sophia Peabody Hawthorne 152
  • Heinrich Heine 156
  • Ernest Hemingway 160
  • Johann Gottfried Von Herder 164
  • Selective Bibliography 167
  • Herodotus 168
  • Selective Bibliography 172
  • Hermann Hesse 173
  • Hugo Von Hofmannsthal 177
  • Horiguchi Daigaku 183
  • Selective Bibliography 186
  • Aldous Leonard Huxley 187
  • Ibn Battuta 192
  • Ibn Khaldun 196
  • Henrik Johan Ibsen 200
  • Selective Bibliography 203
  • Washington Irving 204
  • Viacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov 207
  • Henry James 212
  • Jiang Guangci 216
  • Selective Bibliography 219
  • Jean De Joinville 220
  • Flavius Josephus 224
  • Selective Bibliography 229
  • James Joyce 230
  • Selective Bibliography 233
  • Kabir 234
  • Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin 238
  • Selective Bibliography 241
  • Kim SowŎl 242
  • Rudyard Kipling 245
  • Selective Bibliography 248
  • Adamantios KoraÍs 249
  • BartolomÉ De Las Casas 253
  • D(avid) H(erbert) Lawrence 257
  • Selective Bibliography 260
  • Fanny Lewald 261
  • Selective Bibliography 265
  • Lin Yutang 266
  • Pierre Loti 270
  • AndrÉ Malraux 275
  • Thomas Mann 279
  • Selective Bibliography 282
  • W[illiam] Somerset Maugham 283
  • Selective Bibliography 286
  • Adam Mickiewicz 287
  • Henry Miller 291
  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 295
  • Montaigne (Michel Eyquem, Seigneur De) 299
  • Selective Bibliography 302
  • Charles-Louis De Secondat De Montesquieu 303
  • Selective Bibliography 306
  • Mori (RintarŌ) Ōgai 307
  • Nagai KafŪ 312
  • GÉrard De Nerval (GÉrard Labrunie) 316
  • Selective Bibliography 319
  • AnaÏs Nin 320
  • George Orwell 324
  • Pausanias 329
  • Fernando Pessoa 334
  • Selective Bibliography 337
  • Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) 339
  • Marco Polo 343
  • Jan Potocki 348
  • Selective Bibliography 351
  • Ameen F.Rihani 352
  • Selective Bibliography 355
  • Rainer Maria Rilke 356
  • George Sand (Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin) 361
  • Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 366
  • Victor Segalen 370
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley 374
  • Selective Bibliography 377
  • Georges Simenon 378
  • Madame De StaËl (Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker) 383
  • Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle) 387
  • Selective Bibliography 390
  • Robert Louis Stevenson 391
  • Selective Bibliography 394
  • Cornelius Tacitus 396
  • Rabindranath Tagore 400
  • Terence (Publius Terentius Afer) 404
  • Selective Bibliography 407
  • Alexis De Tocqueville 408
  • Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy 412
  • Cristina Trivulzio Barbiano Di Belgioioso 417
  • Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev 421
  • Selective Bibliography 424
  • Giambattista Vico 426
  • Geoffroy De Villehardouin 430
  • Selective Bibliography 433
  • Voltaire (FranÇois-Marie Arouet) 434
  • Edith Wharton 438
  • Oscar Wilde 442
  • Selective Bibliography 445
  • Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) 447
  • Xenophon 451
  • Selective Bibliography 455
  • Xu Zhimo 456
  • Select Bibliography 461
  • Index 467
  • About the Editors and Contributors 489
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