The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective

By Robert Gellately; Ben Kieman | Go to book overview

8
“Encirclement and Annihilation”
The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor
JOHN G. TAYLOR

When the Indonesian armed forces launched their invasion of East Timor on December 7, 1975, there was a general consensus that it would be a short-lived affair. The poorly armed East Timorese independence movement would be no match for the Indonesian army. Internationally, Indonesia was seen by the governments of the industrialized states as a crucial regional ally, whereas East Timor had no significant international support and could easily be isolated economically, politically, and diplomatically by Indonesia.

Yet, almost a quarter of a century later, this “short-lived” intervention had not achieved its aim of integrating East Timor into the Indonesian Republic. Indeed, quite the opposite had occurred, with East Timor's people voting overwhelmingly for independence on August 30, 1999. In pursuit of Indonesia's aim, however, at least 200,000 East Timorese, almost one-third of its preinvasion population, had died.1 Thousands had been detained without trial, tortured, and disappeared. Most had been forcibly resettled, and lived under constant military surveillance. For most of this twenty-four-year

____________________
1
In an official Portuguese census of 1970, East Timor's population was recorded as 609,477. In a 1974 census undertaken by the Dili diocese, the population was recorded as 688,771. In 1980, an Indonesian census gave a total population of 555,000. A church survey in 1982, published by the United Nations, gave an estimate of 425,000. If we assume a growth rate of 1.7 percent (which was fairly typical of the 1960s), the population in 1980 should have been 713,000. On the basis of the Indonesian census, there is a decline of 158,000. Using such approaches it was estimated by many authors that at least 200,000, or almost one-third of the preinvasion population had died since the invasion. Research in the late 1980s by Amnesty International supported this 200,000 estimate. In the 1990s, most governments agreed with this figure. For example, in 1993, the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Australian Parliament reported that “at least 200,000” had been killed since the 1975 invasion (Australia's Relations with Indonesia, Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade [Canberra, 1993], 6). As early as April 1977, former Indonesian foreign minister Adam Malik stated that 50,000 to 80,000 had already been killed (Sydney Morning Herald, April 5, 1977). His comments followed the visit of a group of Indonesian church workers to East Timor at the end of 1976. Questioning local priests, they gave a figure of 100,000 already killed by that date.

-163-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 396

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.