A work setting is beginning to emerge that is radically different from the one that has traditionally provided the context for HRM policies and practices. In this world downsizing is a tool of managerial decision making, work-family conflict is a fact of life for millions and, increasingly, contingent workers, part-time workers, and outsourcing are used. It is a work setting where opportunities to meet self-enhancement and growth needs exist for some individuals but not for all, and where opportunities for self-protection such as job and benefit security are increasingly difficult to come by.
These changes have made it necessary for HRM as a profession to reevaluate its traditional practices and begin to develop and implement programs that meet these needs for self-enhancement and self-protection in the new work setting. This chapter offered illustrations of such programs, including effective self-career management programs based on personal growth principles; labor pool associations for those for whom self-career management is inappropriate; performance incentive programs not based on organizational commitment, including financial rewards of both direct income and health, welfare, and pension benefits; and insideroutsider training programs.
Underlying these recommendations is my view that HRM professionals, regardless of specific training, need to take an active role in meeting the demands of the new world of work. Key to this process is recognizing that the opportunities for meeting and satisfying the primary motivational patterns of self-enhancement and self-protection are no longer what they used to be, whatever level of the occupational spectrum we are focusing on. For the benefit of both organizations and individuals, developing new mechanisms for responding to these changes is a major challenge facing HRM today.
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Atkinson, J. (1964). An introduction to motivation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.