This book is the culmination of a great deal of work that began when I first entered graduate schoolat the University of Montana in 1990. There, at the University of Hawaii, and at Temple University, I have incurred countless personaland professionaldebts too numerous to mention in detail.
The person most responsible for my finishing this project, however, is Richard H. Immerman of Temple University. His unflagging support, steady encouragement, and infectious enthusiasm have meant a great deal to me personally and were essential to my progress. I have learned much from him. In addition to the great respect I have for him as a scholar, I also consider him a good friend.
A special notice should also be paid to the other distinguished historians who assisted me during my graduate career and have helped me since embarking on my career. Their investment of time and expertise has challenged my thinking and pushed me to produce better historical work. They include Russell F. Weigley, David Alan Rosenberg, James Hilty, Michael Mayer, Robert McGlone, Gary Hess, and Robert Jervis. Retired professor Idus Newby of the University of Hawaii deserves a special note of thanks for donating his time and considerable editing skills toward improving the finalmanuscript. I also appreciate the personaltime and advice that Ambassador Mike Mansfield and Ambassador George McGhee offered to me. Needless to say, all these people have contributed to the virtues of this work but are not responsible for any shortcomings it may contain. Ambassador McGhee, in particular, disagrees with this study's conclusions.
My colleagues at Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati have been uniformly supportive and understanding of my efforts, and I appreciate that very much. I continue to benefit by the support and encouragement of my former colleagues at Shippensburg and Cheyney Universities. I also appreciate the criticisms offered by the members of the Philadelphia International History Group.