The Political Economy of Corruption

By Arvind K. Jain | Go to book overview

Appendix

Appendix Table 6.8 Descriptive statistics: country averages, 1985-971

Variable

Data source

Mean

Std Dev.

Minimum

Maximum

Observations

PRS/ICRG corruption index1

PRS/ICRG database

5.7

2.0

0.3

10.0

128

Graft governance indicators1

Kaufmann, Kraay, Lobatón, 1999

0.1

0.9

-1.6

2.1

128

Mortality rate, under 5 (per 1,000 live births)

WDI database, 1999

66.5

70.1

5.5

320.0

116

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

WDI database, 1999

46.0

40.6

4.5

183.5

117

Births attended by health staff (percent of total)

WDI database, 1999

72.2

27.6

7.7

100.0

110

Immunization, DPT (percent of children under 12 months)

WDI database, 1999

74.4

18.6

18.3

99.5

117

Low-birthweight babies (percent of births)

WDI database, 1999

10.6

6.2

3.2

46.0

113

School enrollment, primary (percent gross)

WDI database, 1999

95.6

20.4

27.8

133.8

111

Repeater rate, primary (percent)

UNESCO database, 1998

9.6

9.6

0.0

41.4

97

Dropout rate, primary (percent)

Barro and Lee, 1996

22.4

23.7

0.0

92.0

105

Persistence to grade 5, total (percent of cohort)

WDI database, 1999

82.0

17.3

32.9

100.0

81

Illiteracy rate, total (15 yrs old+)

WDI database, 1999

26.7

22.5

0.4

87.8

86

Per capita income (PPP)

WEO database, 1999

7,212.6

6,804.5

141.4

28,212.5

118

Public spending on health (percent of GDP)

National authorities; IMF staff estimates

2.3

1.8

0.1

8.4

117

Public spending on education (percent of GDP)

National authorities; IMF staff estimates

3.5

1.7

0.2

8.7

116

Average years of education, female (15 yrs old+)

Barro and Lee, 1996

5.3

2.8

0.5

11.5

91

Average years of education, all (15 yrs old+)

Barro and Lee, 1996

5.8

2.7

0.7

11.7

91

Health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $)

WDI database, 1999

583.8

671.0

11.3

3,462.9

93

Age dependency ratio (dependents to working-age population)

WDI database, 1999

0.7

0.2

0.4

1.1

117

Urban population (percent of total)

WDI database, 1999

55.0

24.1

11.5

100.0

117

Democracy dummy

Treisman, 2000

0.2

0.4

0.0

1.0

89

Protestants (percent of population)

T reisman, 2000

15.4

24.2

0.0

97.8

89

Benefit incidence (ratio of q1 to q5)

Davoodi and Sachjapinan, 2000

1.5

1.9

0.1

9.6

31

Pupil-teacher ratio, primary

WDI database, 1999

28.4

12.5

6.1

66.0

110

Physicians per 1,000 people

WDI database, 1999

1.2

1.1

0.0

3.9

115

Note: 1 The corruption indices retain their original scaling from worst to best.

-136-

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The Political Economy of Corruption
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables viii
  • Part I - Governance and Corruption 1
  • 1 - Power, Politics, and Corruption 3
  • 2 - The Definitions Debate 11
  • Notes 29
  • Part II - Political Systems and Corruption 33
  • 3 - Political Corruption and Democratic Structures 35
  • 4 - Why Do Voters Support Corrupt Politicians? 63
  • Part III - Policy and Political Outcomes 87
  • 5 - Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances 89
  • Notes 107
  • 6 - Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services 111
  • Notes 133
  • Appendix 136
  • Bibliography 138
  • 7 - Historical Antecedents of Corruption in Pakistan 142
  • Bibliography 154
  • Part IV - Solutions and Future Research 155
  • 8 - Measuring Corruption 157
  • Appendix 176
  • Bibliography 177
  • 9 - Legislating Against Corruption in International Markets 180
  • Notes 207
  • Bibliography 212
  • 10 - Controlling Power and Politics 214
  • Bibliography 219
  • Index 220
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