The Political Economy of Corruption

By Arvind K. Jain | Go to book overview

nominal, grouping cases into categories among which there is no particular relationship (the continent where a country is located, for example). Others are ordinal, grouping cases into categories that can be ranked higher or lower in terms of some shared attribute. We might, for example, place countries into high, middle, and low GDP-per-capita groups; all in the "high" category would be more affluent than all in the "middle" group, but there would be considerable variation within groups and no consistent variation among groups. Interval-level measurements array cases along a common dimension marked off into units of identical size, but without a point indicating the complete absence of the attribute. The Fahrenheit scale, for example, has an arbitrary zero point: a 1 degree difference is identical across all values, but 40 degrees is not twice as warm as a reading of 20. We might survey several countries asking whether officials are venal or public-spirited, and express the results at the interval level (say, +5 to -5). Such a measure could not, however, tell us a particular country has a total absence of public spirit or that it is twice as venal as another. Finally, ratio-level data also array cases along a dimension marked off in units of identical size, but include a true "zero point." Here, expressions of proportion are appropriate: a country with 50 million residents is twice as populous as its neighbor with 25 million.

Other things being equal, higher levels of precision and measurement are desirable. But there is such a thing as false precision: while it is more useful to know that a country's population density is 255 people per square mile than that it is moderate, it is neither useful nor statistically appropriate to express that measure as 255.348906346 people/mi2. Indeed, one measurement can be more precise, but less accurate, than another: data telling us country X's population density is 255 people/mi2 may be less accurate than an ordinal ranking of "moderate" if the true figure is 75 people/mi2. Level of measurement is an important statistical issue: it is tempting to treat ordinal data as interval-level, for example, but the results can be misleading.


Bibliography

a
Alam, M. S. (1995) "A Theory of Limits on Corruption and Some Applications," Kyklos 48(3): 419-35.

b
Babbie, E. (1995) The Practice of Social Research (7th edn), Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Braun, M. and Di Tella, R. (2000) "Inflation and Corruption," Working Paper 00-053, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School, Division of Research.

c
Collier, D. and Levitsky, S. (1997) "Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research," World Politics 49 (April): 430-51.

e
Easterly, W. and Levine, R. (1996) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions," Washington, DC: World Bank, Policy Research Department, Macroeconomics and Growth Division.

-177-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Political Economy of Corruption
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables viii
  • Part I - Governance and Corruption 1
  • 1 - Power, Politics, and Corruption 3
  • 2 - The Definitions Debate 11
  • Notes 29
  • Part II - Political Systems and Corruption 33
  • 3 - Political Corruption and Democratic Structures 35
  • 4 - Why Do Voters Support Corrupt Politicians? 63
  • Part III - Policy and Political Outcomes 87
  • 5 - Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances 89
  • Notes 107
  • 6 - Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services 111
  • Notes 133
  • Appendix 136
  • Bibliography 138
  • 7 - Historical Antecedents of Corruption in Pakistan 142
  • Bibliography 154
  • Part IV - Solutions and Future Research 155
  • 8 - Measuring Corruption 157
  • Appendix 176
  • Bibliography 177
  • 9 - Legislating Against Corruption in International Markets 180
  • Notes 207
  • Bibliography 212
  • 10 - Controlling Power and Politics 214
  • Bibliography 219
  • Index 220
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 228

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.