(1990, 1996). The discourses about 'media effects' from politicians and the popular press are already quite laughably simplistic enough: academics shouldn't encourage them in their delusions.
Interestingly, in 1999 the BBFC was also arguing that it should refuse to give some videos 'R18' certificates because children might see and be harmed by them. This classification is for sex videos which can be purchased only by adults in licensed sex shops. The BBFC had previously refused to award certificates to certain videos destined for this strictly adults-only category, but only on the grounds of obscenity, never on the basis that children might view them in the home-the whole point of the R18 category, the very reason that it was created in the first place, being that children aren't supposed to see videos with this classification. The BBFC would appear thus to be undermining the entirety of its own classification system by suggesting that the age-based restrictions on its certificates are in fact irrelevant. (For further details see Petley (2000) and the relevant pages at http://www.melonfarmers.co.uk.)
For a previous discussion of this topic, see also Gauntlett (1998).
A longitudinal panel study is one in which the same group of people (the panel) is surveyed and/or observed at a number of points over a period of time.
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Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate.
Contributors: Martin Barker - Editor, Julian Petley - Editor.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 2001.
Page number: 60.
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