Globalizing Japan: Ethnography of the Japanese Presence in Asia, Europe, and America

By Harumi Befu; Sylvie Guichard-Anguis | Go to book overview
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Notes
1
Japanese terms are transcribed according to the modified Hepburn system. However, certain terms that belong to the inventory of most Western languages, such as judo or jujutsu, and recur throughout the paper are neither set in italics nor marked with diacritics. The same convention has been applied for the founder of judo, but not for his descendants; hence Kano Jigoro, but Kanô Risei.
2
Scholars of sport science and pedagogy probably dealt most extensively with topics related to martial arts. Grabert (1996) analyzes the relationship between karate practice and involvement in situations of physical violence. Fredersdorf (1986) compares Japanese budô arts with Western concepts of physical education. James and Jones (1982) give a detailed ethnographic account of social processes at and around the karate dôjô. Genovese (1980) integrates empirical encounters with karate practice into discourses of Japanese patterns of social organization. Mosch (1987) delineates the processes behind the formation of national sports in Japan and Korea. Saeki (1994) interprets the conflict between the Judo Federation of Japan and its student branch during the 1980s as a struggle between traditionalists and modernists. Much more scholarly work is available in Japanese, focusing on historical, ideological, and organizational aspects of judo in Japan.
3
For a semiotic exploration of the concept of culture, see Posner (1991:37-74).
4
The background story of the Budokan (built right before and for the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964) is exhaustively narrated by Saeki (1994). Matsumae was one of the leading proponents of the Budokan at a time when the Kodokan was still hoping to host the judo contests.
5
The medical doctor Erwin Bälz described upper-class university students as malnourished and overworked. After unsuccessful efforts to have a sports hall built for their recreation, he learned about jujutsu and initiated the reinvention of this old Japanese martial arts tradition (Gerstl 1994:25-6).
6
In 1925, Josef Diwischek's first illustrated book followed: Jiu-Jitsu die waffenlose Selbstverteidigung (Diwischek 1925). Among other books on judo were Katsukuma and Hancock (1906), Das Kano jiu-jitsu (note the paradoxical term of the book title); Sasaki (1906), Judo: das japanische Ringkampf; and Yokoyama Oshima (1911), Judo: manuel de jiu-jitsu de L'Ecole Kano a Tokio.
7
Rautek further developed his teacher's techniques, was known for his perfectionism in technique and elegance, and received many honors in and outside Austria. Today he is widely known for his first aid holds, which are applied all over the world (Gerstl 1994:40).
8
In his historiography of people's universities in Vienna, Klaus Taschwer uses the term "people's university" as the English translation of Volkshochschule - mainly to distinguish it from the Danish "folk high school." Whereas the northern European type was much more designed to enhance community among the visitors, the Viennese type was clearly oriented on the model of the university and the school: people met there, but nearly exclusively for the purpose of enhancing knowledge. See Taschwer (1997).
9
According to a contemporary's impressions, the people's universities played a significant role in the lives of Vienna's blue- and white-collar workers:

Here, one feels truly at home, not only in the inner circle of friends, but also in every new visitor, led here by the same aspiration. Like at halls of the railway-station on all festive days, here meet the excursionists who, removed from the narrowness of the daily-life, want to broaden their horizon and want to search for recreation and refreshment in the mental holiday-destination after monotone and fatiguing professional work.

(Taschwer 1997:191)

-89-

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