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The authors state that it is difficult to think about the self without referring to other people. Although the very
concept of the self seems to denote individualism, the self is incomplete without acknowledging our interactions
with other people. Topics discussed in this chapter include: belongingness, social exclusion, and ostracism (theoretical
background, aggressive behavior and prosocial behavior, self-defeating behavior, cognitive impairment,
larger social trends in belongingness and negative outcomes); the self as an interpersonal actor (self-esteem and
interpersonal relationships, narcissism and interpersonal relationships, reflected appraisals, influence of others'
expectancies); self-presentation (favorability of self-presentation, cognition and self-presentation, harmful aspects
of self-presentation); interpersonal consequences of self-views (self-views alter person perception, self-evaluation
maintenance, self-monitoring, partner views of self, self-handicapping); emotions and the interpersonal self (shame
and guilt, embarrassment, social anxiety, disclosing emotion and personal information); and cultural and historical
variations in selfhood (culture and society, historical evolution of self, medieval times to the twentieth century, the
1960s to the present).
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crises in ego growth associated with different life cycle periods in terms of status measures expanding on Erikson's
polar alternative resolutions (E. H. Erikson, 1959). Using these status measures, the author discusses the developmental
linkages between these stages and examines development from one status to another within a particular
psychosocial stage. With respect to identity itself, the author also illustrates the cyclical process that might
describe identity re-formulation through the adult psychosocial stages. Finally, the author presents case studies
of a fifty-three-year-old man and thirty-seven-year-old woman, respectively, as examples of adult psychosocial
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