The Race to Commercialize Biotechnology: Molecules, Markets, and the State in the United States and Japan

By Steven W. Collins | Go to book overview
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Notes

1Introduction
1
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Commercial Biotechnology: An International Assessment, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1984.
2
National Research Council, US-Japan Technology Linkages in Biotechnology, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992, p. 51.
3
Kenichi Arai, Tokyo genomu bei keikaku [Tokyo Genome Bay Project], Tokyo: Kodansha, 2002, p. 36.
4
BT senryaku kaigi kiso iinkai [Drafting Committee of the Cabinet Council on Biotechnology Strategy], "Baiotekurunoroji-senryaku taiko (soan)" [Outline of a Strategy for Biotechnology (Draft)], 26 November 2002, p. 6.
5
Keizai sangyosho [Ministry of Economics, Trade, and Industry], Waga kuni no baio sangyo o meguru jokyo ni tsuite [Conditions in our Country's Bioindustry], 23 May 2002, p. 1.
6
Kosei rodosho [Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare], "'Seimei no seiki' o sasaeru iyakuhin sangyo no kokusai kyosoryoku kyoka ni mukete: iyakuhin sangyo bijion no gaiyo" [Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Pharmaceutical Industry to Support the "Century of Life": Outline of the Pharmaceutical Industry Vision], 30 August 2002, p. 3.
7
The number 334 comes from a recent survey of biotechnology venture firms conducted by the Japan Bioindustry Association. See Baioindasutori-kyokai, "Baiobencha-ni kansuru tokei" [Statistics Related to Biotechnology Venture Businesses], 11 June 2003, online, available HTTP: (accessed 19 June 2003). Consultants Ernst & Young reckon that in 2001 there were 1,115 private biotechnology firms in the US and 1,775 in Europe.
8
These figures come from the Prime Minister's Cabinet Council on Biotechnology Strategy. See note 4.
9
The scientific community was especially stung by President Clinton's omission of Japan in a speech he made in June 2001 announcing the impending completion of the Human Genome Project. Although the speech omitted Japan, it acknowledged the contributions of the UK, Germany, France, and China to the project's completion. "Research Requires National Strategy, " Nikkei Weekly, 19 March 2001.
10
R. Triendl, "Large-Scale Projects See Increased Spending in Japan's Budget, " Nature Biotechnology, March 2003, p. 218.
11
"Alleged Biotech Espionage Rocks Japan, " The Lancet, 20 June 2001, vol. 357, p. 2111.

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