By deliberately choosing in this chapter to cite evidence drawn from across the centuries, I am also hinting at some long-term continuities, particularly in conditions of practice.
Scribonius Largus, Drug Recipes 122; Alexander of Tralles, Handbook 1, 15; 1, 565 Puschmann. Varro (On Agriculture 2, 10, 10) claims that an ability to read is essential for a rural farmer-cum-vet, but how far his 'one ought' was obeyed is unclear. The very late Latin author, Muscio (Gynaecology pr., ed. Rose), expects that 'ill-educated midwives' will have his simple book read out to them by better-educated women.
Temkin 1977:144-6; Yunis 2003. On the consequences of literacy and the sporadic survival of records for the historian, cf. Clanchy 1993.
Lloyd 1983:119-26; Arnott 1997:249-77; Arnott et al. 2003. Cf. [Hippocrates], Epidemics 5, 28: V, 227 L. For trepanation in early Rome, see Germanà and Fornaciari 1993; and for early Britain, see The Times, 21 August 2002:8.
[Hippocrates], Sacred Disease 1, 10-46: VI, 354-64 L.; Justinian, Digest 50, 13, 1, 3 (from Ulpian); some idea of their charms and incantations can be gained from H. D. Betz 1992; Önnerfors 1993.
Paribeni and Romanelli 1914:60, no. 49, probably around 50 BC.
Majno 1975; Krug 1985:70-103; R. Jackson 1988; Marganne 1998. Note also the use of artistic evidence for ancient medical conditions by Grmek and Gourevitch (1998).
Marganne 1981: esp. nos. 9-19, for potsherds.
Soranus of Ephesus, Life of Hippocrates 3-4.
Dorotheus, Phlegon, Marvellous Stories = FGrH II b 74, fr. 36, 6; Olympus, Plutarch, Antony 82 = FGrH II b 198.
Galen, Against Julian 1:18A, 248; Apuleius, fr. 14; cf. Harrison 2000:13, 25.
Some temple libraries in Egypt housed collections of medical books; Galen, 13, 776 (from Heras, first century AD): Reizenstein 1904:121, n. 6 (a recipe 'originally in Egyptian letters' for arthritis); Reymond 1976; Thompson 1988:208-11. The libraries at the Asclepieia at Cos and Pergamum probably housed religious literature or belles lettres rather than medical texts. Cf. Scribonius Largus, Drug Recipes 97, for a recipe placed (by imperial order?) in 'public libraries'. In general, see L. Robert 1969:178-85; Casson 2001.


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Ancient Medicine


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