People out of Place: Globalization, Human Rights, and the Citizenship Gap

By Alison Brysk; Gershon Shafir | Go to book overview

4

Latitudes of Citizenship

Membership, Meaning, and Multiculturalism

AIHWA ONG


The Debate on Multicultural Membership

For some time now, American citizenship has been a subject of intense debate. Scholars have moved beyond a tight focus on citizenship as a set of legal rights-either you have it or you don't-to an unavoidable consideration of membership that includes a variety of subjects, who include noncitizens. There are citizens (native and naturalized), and then there are green-card holders and legal refugees, who it is assumed will eventually apply for naturalization. Then there is a growing category of temporary visa holders-the skilled workers on H-IB visas, the overseas students, and the contract labor migrants. Finally, there are the illegal residents, those foreigners without papers who nevertheless live and work as part of society. Culture wars since the 1970s have broadened discussions beyond citizenship to membership of a variety of legal, partially legal and illegal residents. Great waves of migrations from Latin America and Asia, the circulations of business travelers and students, and the ever growing number of individuals with dual citizenship all add to a society of astonishing flux and diversity.

This chapter considers the symbolic and social meanings of American citizenship, and how it has been affected by forces of globalization, from increased immigration to transnational corporate connections. Recent debates show that the substance-the marrow, the soul, and the ethics-of American citizenship is in a prolonged crisis. As the idea of adherence to a single cultural nation wanes, there is a steady "desacralization" of state membership (Brubaker 1989:4-5). Concomitantly, the demands for cultural acceptance, along with affirmative action mechanisms to increase demographic diversity in major institutions and areas of public life, has shifted discussions of citizenship from a focus on political practice based on shared civic rights and responsibilities to an insistence on the protection of cultural difference as new waves of immigrants have become more assertive about the hegemony of majority white culture.

For instance, in California, activist Chicano scholar-advocates such as Renato Rosaldo defined cultural citizenship as "the right to be different" (in terms of race, ethnicity, or native language) with respect to the norms of the

-53-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
People out of Place: Globalization, Human Rights, and the Citizenship Gap
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • I - Framework 1
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - Citizenship and Human Rights in an Era of Globalization 11
  • II - Producing Citizenship 27
  • 3 - Constituting Political Community 29
  • 4 - Latitudes of Citizenship 53
  • III - Constructing Rights 71
  • 5 - Agency on a Global Scale 73
  • 6 - Mandated Membership, Diluted Identity 87
  • IV - Globalizing the Citizenship Gap 107
  • 7 - Deflated Citizenship 109
  • 8 - Globalized Social Reproduction 131
  • 9 - Children Across Borders 153
  • V - Reconstructing Citizenship 175
  • 10 - Citizenship and Globalism 177
  • 11 - The Repositioning of Citizenship 191
  • 12 - Conclusion: Globalizing Citizenship? 209
  • Bibliography 217
  • Index 239
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 248

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.