Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Japan

By J. A.A. Stockwin | Go to book overview

D

Daybreak Club (Reimeikai)

Following the break-up of the NEW FRONTIER PARTY (NFP) at the end of December 1997, the Upper House Kōmei group, which had stood apart from the NFP but was allied with it, in January 1998 formed the Daybreak Club. This then formed an important element in the process of reconstruction of the CLEAN GOVERNMENT PARTY, finalised in November.


defence

Since the 1960s, except for the years 1986, 1987 and 1989, Japanese defence spending has been running at less than 1 per cent of gross national product. Nakasone, as Prime Minister in the mid-1980s, deliberately broke the '1 per cent ceiling', but after three years, during which the proportion marginally exceeded 1 per cent, it sank back to its usual levels. As a proportion of annual Government expenditure, defence spending has averaged slightly more than 6 per cent since 1986. The figures, however, need careful scrutiny. Japan does not include pensions and other benefits provided to former service personnel in the defence budget, as is standard among NATO countries. If these payments were added, the proportion of GNP would rise to substantially over 1 per cent.

Because of the constitutional constraints created by article 9 of the 1946 Constitution, and because of the great sensitivity of defence as a political issue, Japan does not possess an army, navy or air force. In their stead it has Ground Self-Defence Forces, Maritime Self-Defence Forces and Air Self-Defence Forces. The titles of ranks in these three services were deliberately made different from those of the former Imperial Armed Forces. The military capacities of the Self-Defence Forces (SDF, jieitai) are, however, substantial. Total personnel numbers are close to a quarter of a million, and in 1997 the three services between them 'deployed over 1,000 battle tanks, 510 aircraft, and 160 surface ships and submarines' (Hook et al., 2001, p. 12). It is sometimes stated that Japan ranks number three or number four in the world in defence capacity. This needs to be qualified, however. Japan has no nuclear weapons capability, virtually none of her troops have any battle experience, and the SDF have had to keep a low profile in the face of widespread pacifist sentiment, even though this may now be declining to some extent. There is no conscription for military service.

In a somewhat paradoxical fashion, public opinion polls show an overwhelming majority approving the existence of the SDF, but a majority also supporting the peace clause of the Constitution that purports to ban armed forces. Moreover, many people, when polled, appear to regard the SDF as much as a disaster relief organisation as a body whose principal task is to fight wars. On the other hand, since the passage in 1992 of the Peace-Keeping Operations (PKO) bill, contingents from the SDF have assisted with UN peace-keeping exercises, in a non-military capacity, in various trouble spots, most notably Cambodia in 1992-3. This has not met the degree of domestic opposition that was widely predicted at the time. In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001, Parliament authorised the

-39-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Japan
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 291

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.