conflict and to exact harsh reprisals against the Chechen people every time they attack Russian targets.
See also: Russia.
One of the most horrific aspects of terrorism is the use of children as combatants, in some cases as a result of being kidnapped. They can be used to carry equipment, serve as human mine detectors, undertake suicide missions, carry supplies, and act as messengers (Hansen, 2001). They tend to suffer high casualties, and later turn to crime as they have known no other life. Some Palestinians exhort their children on the love of holy war (Human Rights Watch, 2001).
Some children grow up to be terrorists as their parents are terrorists and often die brutal deaths as terrorists.
Child soldiers have fought as paramilitaries in Algeria, Colombia, East Timor, India, Indonesia, Mexico and Yugoslavia. They have been a part of the government armed forces of Burundi, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Myanmar and Uganda.
As members of armed opposition groups children have fought in the Congo, Lebanon, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, Turkey and Uzbekistan.
See also: Environmental Influences.
The People's Republic of China defines itself, as a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The power struggle within the Communist Party, which followed the death of Mao in 1976, was accompanied by various manifestations of opposition to the government, although organised groups were largely confined to those seeking full observance of human rights in China. Externally, the regime in Beijing is faced with no serious threat except from the Taiwanese nationalists who were driven to their island home of Taiwan (formerly Formosa) when the Communists came to power under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou en-Lai in 1949. The Kuomintang regime in Taiwan claims it is the legitimate government of the whole of China.
In 1981 the Communist Party issued directives insisting that literature and art must conform to official policy and calling for a total ban on unofficial publications and organisations. These directives were aimed at such organisations as the Chinese Revolutionary Party formed in 1982, and advocating the establishment of a multi-party parliamentary democracy in China; and the Human Rights Alliance, which in 1979 published a manifesto calling for a constitutionally-guaranteed right to criticise state and party leaders, representation of non-communist parties in the National People's Congress, and freedom to change one's work and to travel abroad. The Society of Light has been less successful than the Alliance in that since its inception in 1978 most of its leaders have been arrested. It complained that wages have not kept pace with prices, and has called for 'the fifth modernisation' - democracy, to complement the four modernisation's of agriculture, industry, national defence, and science and technology
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Publication information: Book title: Dictionary of Terrorism. Edition: 2nd. Contributors: John Richard Thackrah - Author. Publisher: Routledge. Place of publication: London. Publication year: 2004. Page number: 35.
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