Section II

INDEPENDENCE AND THE POLITICS OF TRANSITION 1985-1999

Chapter 3

THE ACHIEVEMENT OF INDEPENDENCE, 1985-1991

Few people in the 1960s and '70s were bold enough to forecast the demise of the Soviet Union. Moscow, it was generally believed, still posed a formidable security threat and a major ideological challenge to the West. There were no indications that the Kremlin was about to loosen its hold on power, either in the Soviet Union or in East Central Europe, even though there was some evidence of systemic weakness and long-term relative decline. The emergence of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) raised hopes in some quarters that the decline could be reversed. Indeed Gorbachev showed that a new leader could make a significant difference, but not in ways that could have been predicted. In fact, the reform process initiated by Gorbachev developed its own anti-system dynamic and defied the best attempts of the Kremlin to re-assert its control.

The Soviet Union had not one but several Achilles' heels, the economy, the environment, and nationalities policy being among the most conspicuous. Arguably, the decades-long policy of Sovietization was the Soviet Union's greatest failure. As soon as Gorbachev loosened the controls the various Soviet nationalities began to reassert themselves amid calls for self-determination and the restoration of sovereignty. Although there was undoubtedly a connection between Gorbachev's assumption of power and the increased visibility of national movements, it would, nevertheless, be a mistake to over-emphasise the discontinuity of the mid-1980s. After all, a formidable dissenting movement had existed in the Lithuanian republic for two decades. What the world saw was a small group of active dissenters who were prepared to sacrifice themselves for their varied causes. For them imprisonment, consignment to psychiatric hospitals and loss of career were to be expected. What it did not generally see was that the active dissenters were the tip of the iceberg, enjoying the covert, and occasionally the open, support of large sections of the population. Gorbachev did not

LITHUANIA: STEPPING WESTWARD

-87-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Lithuania: Stepping Westward
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 250

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.