9

Towards a theory of reading by touch

In asking what kind of model best fits the findings on reading by touch, three main factors have to be considered: perceptual processes, knowledge of the language, and knowledge of the orthographic rules and conventions which govern the translation between the sounds of language and the perception of the tactual patterns which symbolize them. The model must also be able to account for maturation and development, and specify how learning takes place.

The working model of reading by touch that I am proposing uses the overall metaphor of 'converging active processing in interrelated networks' (CAPIN for short) for human information processing (Millar, 1994). It stresses the inherent activity of the system which incoming patterns of impulses modify, and which also influences incoming patterns of activation. The notion of converging processes is needed to describe the intersensory nature of perception by touch. I used the description originally to account for the spatial organization of intersensory cues from touch, movement and posture in the absence of current external frame cues (Millar, 1981 a, 1994). The description applies to the initial perception of braille patterns, and the progressive spatial organization of scanning movements found here (Chapters 2 and 3). The metaphor of networks of interconnections also accounts for the variables involved in language acquisition. The connections between heard sounds, speech output, semantic and linguistic inputs become progressively more organized in converging networks. Incoming information that activates part of the system will activate other connections to some extent also.

I am also making assumptions about developmental processes. We know that the central nervous system is innately biased towards accepting and organizing some inputs more than others. The patterns of connections that serve hearing, speech and language must be assumed to have stronger connections with each other originally than with the patterns that serve the connections between touch and movement. At the same time, even 'dedicated' parts of the network have connections or potential connections with other parts of the network. There is increasing evidence that even inherently dedicated connections in the actual neural network can be

-278-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Reading by Touch
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 340

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.