Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey

By Joy A. Palmer; Liora Bresler et al. | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Plato, Apology 38A.
2
Particularly from those usually (though perhaps not very securely) labelled as early: most people's lists will include Charmides, Hippias Minor, Ion, Laches, Lysis, Crito, and Euthyphro, along with the Apology. Other dialogues that contain clearly Socratic material are Gorgias, Meno, Protagoras, Republic I, and, I believe, Symposium.
3
For alternative views of Socrates, see e.g. Xenophon, Memoirs of Socrates (moral authority, guru?); Aristophanes, Clouds (scientist, expert public speaker); Vlastos (author of Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher) and others listed under 'Further reading'-except for Penner, whose Socrates is a more philosophically complex and sophisticated version of the one described in the present essay.
4
See e.g. Gorgias 466A-468E, Meno 77A-78B.
5
This other-regarding aspect of Socrates' philosophy is perhaps most evident in the Crito and the Symposium-although it is perhaps permanently on display in the very practice of Socratic conversation.
6
See especially Apology 29D-30D.
7
The preceding four sentences are more or less a paraphrase of a major part of the argument of the Crito.
8
As Plato has Socrates argue at length in the last part of the Protagoras.
9
This is the kind of analysis generally hinted at, though never fully asserted (after all, Socrates knows nothing), in the 'dialogues of definition' like Laches, Charmides, or Euthyphro.
10
Clearly the pair of 'virtue is knowledge' (and vice ignorance), given the Socratic analysis: see e.g. Meno 87Bff., Hippias Minor 371E-373A with 376B, Apology 25D with 37A.

See also

In this book: Plato


Socrates' major writings

Socrates did not write anything. The dialogues of Plato in which his views are primarily represented, and which were cited in note 2, are widely available in translation, perhaps most conveniently in John M. Cooper (ed.), Plato: Complete Works, Hackett, Indianapolis, 1997. But for the Symposium, see also my translation and commentary (Aris & Phillips, Warminster, 1998) which gives what I believe is a proper emphasis to the Socratic elements in the character Socrates' contribution to the occasion.


Further reading

i
Irwin, Terence, Plato's Ethics, Oxford: OUP, 1995.

k
Kahn, Charles H., Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form, Cambridge: CUP, 1996.
Kraut, Richard, Socrates and the State, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

p
Penner, Terry, 'Socrates and the Early Dialogues', in Richard Kraut (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 121-69, 1992.
--'Socrates', in Christopher Rowe and Malcolm Schofield (eds), The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 164-89, 2000.

-9-

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