'preparing from afar the reign of freedom' (63) would succeed. He showed his own reservations about it in Émile et Sophie, ou les solitaires, an unfinished, unpublished sequel to the Émile. In this, the young lovers, once exposed to the corrupt world of Paris, did not reach a happy ending, but marital breakdown, adultery and separation. The fourth charge is that the different forms of education which Rousseau advocated for men and women would result in inequality, not 'complementarity', as he claimed. As a result, women would never reach moral or intellectual maturity, let alone political or economic independence. Mary Wollstonecraft was the first of many critics to point to Rousseau's duplicity on this vital question. Though there is still resonance in Rousseau's reflexions on sexual difference and identity, the prescriptions he derived from them have not withstood the test of time.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Émile, Book I, trans. A. Bloom New York: Basic Books, p. 37, 1979. All further page references are to this translation.
Despite that, Rousseau used his experience to write two brief treatises on education, the Mémoire and the Projet, which he presented to his employer. They contain several original theses which he would develop later in the Émile.
See Leith (1977, p. 19).
In this book: Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessori, Wollstonecraft
In Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: Piaget
Rousseau's major writings
The standard edition of Rousseau's works in French is Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Œuvres complètes, ed. B. Gagnebin, M. Raymond, Paris, Gallimard: Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 5 volumes, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1995.
The standard English translation (not yet completed) is Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Collected Writings, series editors, R. Masters, C. Kelly, Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1990 ff.
Not yet available in the Collected Writings:
Émile, or on Education, trans. A. Bloom, New York: Basic Books, 1979.
Cranston, M., Jean-Jacques: The Early Life and Work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1754, London: Allen Lane, 1983.
--The Noble Savage: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1754-1762, London: Allen Lane, 1991.
--The Solitary Self: Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Exile and Adversity, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Dent, N.J.H., Rousseau: An Introduction to his Psychological, Social and Political Theory, Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.
Jimack, P., Rousseau, 'Émile', London: Grant and Cutler, 1983.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey.
Contributors: Joy A. Palmer - Editor, Liora Bresler - Editor, David E. Cooper - Editor.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 2001.
Page number: 59.
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