Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

Part II

Measurements and interpretations

If, as Sheptycki argues in Part I, it is necessary to question how scarce policing resources can be targeted, 'where they can be expected to do the most good, or at least cause the least harm', then a more reflexive and democratic dialogue over the substantive content of TOC threats is needed. As we have argued elsewhere (Edwards and Gill, 1998, 2002), social science has a key role to play in the facilitation of this dialogue, in eliciting the unintended consequences of policy responses to these threats and in shaping the knowledge-base for policy change and learning. The chapters in this section of the book address the frequent refrain that policy responses to TOC have been predicated more on assertion than rigorous research. They debate the insights and limitations of different research methods and how these can be used to interest policy-makers in different conceptualisations of TOC.

Burnham discusses a research project he is conducting on the possibility of quantifying the threat of TOC. This project, which is funded by the United States National Institute of Justice (NIJ), has its origins in an NIJ seminar on the need to measure TOC. Whereas some participants insisted that quantification was a necessary prerequisite of designing (and evaluating the impact of) rational control strategies, others argued that it would never be possible to accurately measure TOC and therefore alternative approaches to evidence-based policy-making must be considered, for example the use of social network analysis. It was suggested at this seminar that, before a particular research method was dismissed, it would be useful to know exactly what data sets already exist and how different national authorities and intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) collect and interpret data on TOC. Burnham presents interim findings from the NIJ project and considers the problems associated with developing a common recording method that could facilitate international comparisons of the incidence, prevalence and concentration of TOC.

Gregory explores the challenges of quantifying TOC further, through reference to the design and implementation of the Organised Crime Notification Scheme (OCNS) in the United Kingdom. He notes that problems of 'activity identification' in criminological research per se are

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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