Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

8

Bad boys in the Baltics1

Paddy Rawlinson


Introduction

The term 'transnational organised crime' (TOC) evokes images of a world without frontiers assaulted by the trans-border activities of criminal groups indigenous to states in transition or Third World countries. It is an attack on civilised states by the 'forces of incivility', the price we must pay for the benefits globalisation has bequeathed (or will bequeath) on those invited to participate in the free market and the development of democracy. The imminent enlargement of the European Union, to include ten former communist states in Eastern and Central Europe, brings these security fears into focus; that is, a vulnerability to the expanding presence of organised crime, particularly from Russia and other CIS countries. Full membership of the EU will entail the automatic ratification of the Schengen acquis, which guarantees the free movement of persons and goods within the EU, thereby providing plentiful opportunities for criminal networks to expand their business activities westwards.

The Baltic States - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - lie at the Eastern frontier of this expansion and will effectively become crime control sentinels for the new Europe. Their ability to fulfil the task of stemming the flow of TOC from Russia and beyond makes them strategically vital for maintaining the Treaty of Amsterdam's stated objective to create an 'area of freedom, security and justice' within the EU. This threat from TOC from the East has prompted the initiation of objectives and policies by Brussels aimed at helping accession states fulfil their role in reducing this risk. These include the Pre-Accession Pact on Organised Crime and other programmes, not all confined to the EU, such as the Task Force on Organised Crime in the Baltic Sea Region and the Northern Dimension Action Plan 2000-2003 (CEU, 2000) which collectively make provisions for inter alia mutual judicial assistance, joint police operations, greater law enforcement and judicial co-operation in the fight against organised crime, money laundering, terrorism and transnational offences currently outside the EU, including Russia and its European exclave, the Kaliningrad oblast.

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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