breaking down, so that what were once regarded as separate issues are becoming fused. Hypothetically, this might suggest that the criminal law should be abandoned and that energy should be devoted instead to the development of an alternative set of legal tools that might be better suited to dealing with such problems. However, for the present at least, governments have chosen to seek modifications to the criminal law to try to fashion it into a more suitable vehicle for addressing transnational security issues. They thus appear to remain confident that its mechanisms and infrastructure can be manipulated so as to yield viable solutions to these problems.
Arlaachi, P. (1998) 'Some observations on illegal markets', in V. Ruggiero, N. South and I. Taylor (eds) The New European Criminology: Crime and Social Order in Europe. London: Routledge.
Ashworth, A.J. (1999) Principles of Criminal Law, 3rd edn. Oxford: OUP.
--(2000) Sentencing and Criminal Justice , 3rd edn. London: Butterworths.
Ashworth, A.J. and Blake, M. (1996) 'The presumption of innocence in English criminal law', Criminal Law Review 306-17.
Baker, E. (2002) 'Criminal jurisdiction, the public dimension to "effective protection" and the construction of community-citizen relations', in A.A. Dashwood et al. (eds) Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies Volume 4. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Bottoms, A.E (2002) 'Morality, crime, compliance and public policy', in A.E. Bottoms and M. Tonry (eds) Ideology, Crime and Criminal Justice: A Symposium in Honour of Sir Leon Radzinowicz. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Clarkson, C.M.V. and Keating, H.M. (1998) Criminal Law: Text and Materials, 4th edn. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
European Union (1999) Conclusions of the Tampere European Council, 15 and 16 October 1999, Bulletin of the European Union, Bull.EU 10-99.
Garland, D. (1996) 'The limits of the sovereign state: strategies of crime control in contemporary society', British Journal of Criminology 36: 445-71.
Gilmore, W. (1995) Dirty Money: The Evolution of Money Laundering Counter-Measures. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Levi, M. (1991) 'Regulating money laundering: the death of bank secrecy in the UK', British Journal of Criminology 31: 109-25.
Nelken, D. (1994) 'Whom can you trust? The future of comparative criminology', in D. Nelken (ed.) The Futures of Criminology. London: Sage.
Passas, N. and Nelken, D. (1993) 'The thin blue line between legitimate and criminal enterprises: subsidy and frauds in the European Community', Crime, Law and Social Change 19: 223-43.
Rees, G.W. and Webber, M. (2002) 'Fighting organised crime: the European Union and internal security', in A. Crawford (ed.) Crime and Insecurity: the Governance of Safety in Europe. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Sevenster, H. (1992) 'Criminal law and EC Law', Common Market Law Review 29: 29-70.
Shaw, J. (1998) 'The interpretation of European Union citizenship', Modern Law Review 61: 293-317.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security.
Contributors: Adam Edwards - Editor, Peter Gill - Editor.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 2003.
Page number: 193.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.