Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

14

Proteiform criminalities

The formation of organised crime as organisers' responses to developments in four fields of control *

Nicholas Dorn


Introduction

1

Following the Second World War, different state agencies (the police, the Customs, secret services, fiscal and other administrations, market regulators, and so on) have generally regarded their concerns as non-overlapping, and the sharing of information between them was ad hoc. Increasingly, however, these agencies consider themselves all to be involved, to some extent, in a common fight against the various facets of an extended and dangerous phenomenon, that of 'organised crime' (henceforth, 'OC'). This chapter first develops a framework for asking questions about intelligence development by, and intelligence sharing between, diverse agencies. It then invokes the general assumption (drawn from enforcement practice and social theory) that the forms taken by criminal enterprises are at least partly the result of criminal organisers' counter-measures to strategies of control. This raises a practical question for research and for policy: what new forms of criminality and social risk arise as unintended side-effects of, and reactions to, multi-agency intelligence exchange? Today's intelligence environment also raises questions about the future of research.


Historical emergence of co-operation

In previous decades, diverse forms of economic activities - marginal, irregular, 'grey' and/or criminal (such as corruption of state officials or of commercial enterprises; fraud in relation to private parties, the state or the European budget; large-scale evasion of tax; thefts of objects of high monetary value; trafficking in drugs, other prohibited goods or human beings; arms trafficking, and so on) - were seen as separate and distint from each other. These and other problems were seen as

* This chapter is an English language version of a paper originally published as, 'Du renseignement au partage des informations: l'intelligence protéiforme', in Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure, 1999, no. 34.

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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