Sport and the Color Line: Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth-Century America

By Patrick B. Miller; David K. Wiggins | Go to book overview

I

SPORT AND COMMUNITY IN THE ERA OF JIM CROW

"AT A TIME WHEN black Americans were denied basic fairness across the board, the theory that hard work could trump racism was both noble and patently false." (Brent Staples in the New York Times, February 1, 2003). Indeed, before the middle of the twentieth century, when mainstream institutions-major colleges and universities, law firms, corporate offices, the U.S. military, and civil service-made their first tentative but significant efforts to include black Americans, positions of leadership and responsibility were filled principally within the African-American community. The walls of segregation were built thick and high during the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first years of the twentieth, and racism manifested itself not only in exclusionary practices, which pervaded the sporting world as well, but also in the myriad indignities and the outright violence regularly confronted by blacks.

No one narrative captures the ambition and despair, the frustration and striving that characterized the experience of Jim Crow for the mass of black Americans. Although there was no Mason-Dixon Line demarking the boundaries of racism in America, the Great Migration of millions of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North did suggest that greater opportunity and freedom in cities like Pittsburgh possessed substantial appeal. There, black Americans faced continued hardship, but their impressive energy in (re)creating their churches and benevolent associations, in founding business enterprises, and establishing community centers-including sporting clubs, parks, and local YMCAs-spoke to a newfound spirit and sense of hope for the future. In many ways athletic achievement, even when displayed behind the veil of segregation, informed the concept of the "New Negro"-increasingly proud and assertive.

The emerging black press captured the vitality of northern communities when discussing politics, education, the African-American social swirl of the big cities, and the mounting number of achievements in the athletic arena. Occasional opportunities for

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Sport and the Color Line: Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth-Century America
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 382

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.