1Sport competitions: rules, goals and social logic
A similar definition of sport as a social phenomenon is found in Coakley (1998:19). For philosophical discussions of the meaning of, and relations between, terms such as 'play', 'games', and 'sports', see for instance Huizinga (1950), Loy (1968), Suits (1973, 1978), McBride (1975), Guttmann (1978), Kretchmar (1975), Loy, McPherson and Kenyon (1978), Sutton-Smith and Roberts (1980), Tangen (1985, 1997), Caillois (1988), Meier (1988), and Chick and Loy (1996).
These distinctions are inspired by Suits (1973). In Suits' terminology, 'prelusory goals' are set out '…before, or independently, of any game of which it may be, or come to be, a part' (p. 48), while ideas of winning he calls the 'lusory goals' of games.
Heinilä's survey is presented in McIntosh 1979, Chapter 9.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 1984:220.
2A moral point of view
A more usual distinction is drawn between teleological and deontological ethical theories. In teleological theories (from the Greek telos, 'goal') an action is seen as right if it promotes a set of goals deemed good (Rawls 1971:24). Such theories include consideration of consequences where these are relevant but emphasize in addition other aspects of actions. Consequentialism in general, and utilitarianism in particular, are typical teleological theories. A deontological theory, on the other hand (from the Greek to deon, 'duty'), is a non-consequentialist theory, according to which the good is not defined independently of the right, and/or where the right is not understood simply as the maximization of the good (Rawls 1971:30). I have chosen a different terminology, because it better demonstrates the tensions between, and the complementary functions of, my two perspectives.
However, this solution is not free of problematic consequences either. For example, as Parfit (1984:381 ff.) has shown, if we go for the maximization of average preference-satisfaction of all parties concerned, we may end up with 'repugnant' conclusions. Parfit's example is that, in order to enhance average preference satisfaction, it would be best if two-thirds of the current world population (those who are starving and suffering) simply disappeared. Still, the problematic aspects of the average preference-satisfaction criteria do not necessarily affect my more restricted argument to do with sport competitions. I assume that people are
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Book title: Fair Play in Sport: A Moral Norm System.
Contributors: Sigmund Loland - Author.
Place of publication: London.
Publication year: 2002.
Page number: 151.
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