Changing Europe: Identities, Nations and Citizens

By David Dunkerley; Lesley Hodgson et al. | Go to book overview

and the Union, a condition at the heart of the idea of citizenship. The rights of residence and free movement in other member states are limited by possession of sufficient financial resources and medical insurance. Moreover, electoral rights in the country of residence (that is, the rights to participate in municipal and European Parliament elections) do not increase citizens' influence over the Community since all important decisions concerning Union citizens are taken at the national level and in the European Council. On the other hand, the idea of nationality as a condition for EU citizenship excludes a significant part of society from the benefits of fundamental rights. About ten million legal long-term residents live in the EU without the status of citizenship because they do not have nationality of any of the member states. Immigration and asylum policy within the EU has become more and more stringent as the jus sanguinis rule is mainly employed by the member states in their nationalisation procedures. This policy results in a growing number of foreigners and legal residents becoming non-citizens of the European Union. According to Bauböck (1997) the irony of EU citizenship is that, on the one hand, its rights relate primarily to migrants but, on the other hand, determination of the persons to whom these rights apply excludes the great majority of migrants residing in the EU.

It could be argued that these features of Union citizenship are especially important as the EU prepares for enlargement towards central-eastern Europe. The development of Union citizenship clearly suggests that it follows the logic of exclusion. Thus, European citizenship reflects an internal mechanism of European integration that seems to be an extrapolation of the tradition of Western culture based of the principle - as is illustrated in Michel Foucault's work - of exclusion of the Other.


Further reading
Antola, E. and Rosas, A. (eds) (1995) A Citizens' Europe. In Search of a New Legal Order. London: Sage
Marshall, T.H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O'Leary, S. (1996) European Union Citizenship. The Options for Reform. London: IPPR.
Sorensen, J.M. (1996) The Exclusive European Citizenship: The Case for Refugees and Immigrants in the European Union. Aldershot: Ashgate.
van Steenbergen, B. (ed.) (1994) The Condition of Citizenship. London: Sage.

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Changing Europe: Identities, Nations and Citizens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables x
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 2 - European Citizenship 9
  • Further Reading 22
  • Chapter 3 - The Nation-State in Europe 23
  • Further Reading 41
  • Chapter 4 - Nationalism in Europe 43
  • Chapter 5 - Regions in Europe and 'A Europe of the Regions' 65
  • Chapter 6 - Migration and Asylum-Seeking in Europe 81
  • Further Reading 94
  • Chapter 7 - Human Rights - the European Experience 95
  • Chapter 8 - 'Europe' and European Identity 109
  • Further Reading 125
  • Chapter 9 - European Nation-States 127
  • Chapter 10 - The Enlargement of the European Union 141
  • Further Reading 155
  • Chapter 11 - European Nation-States and Globalisation 157
  • Notes 171
  • References 173
  • Index 183
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