The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia

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to their management; these changes are sometimes encapsulated in the term 'the new evaluative state' (Neave 1998). The emphasis on performance indicators has emerged from reforms within the public sector, where it was designed to increase efficiency and accountability, and to reduce costs and perceived waste (Hood and Scott 1996). Governments have progressively extended these new evaluative mechanisms to universities in most of the advanced societies, to foster better strategic planning and enterprise.The underlying assumption is that market competition within and between universities provides a more effective means of regulation and control than traditional models of academic collegiality.

How the social sciences will respond to these major challenges remains to be seen. What is clear is that the degree of social change in the twentieth century and, to an even greater extent, the prospects for change in the twenty-first, greatly enhance the importance of the social sciences to modern society.The revolutions in global communications and information, the collapse of communism and the triumph of democracy, and the increasing reliance on the free market to regulate and modernise society at a time when inequalities are increasing, all present major problems and opportunities for social scientists. How the social sciences act to deal with these problems, and, to an even greater degree, how their solutions are received by politicians and policy-makers, may in many respects shape the development of the social sciences for many decades to come.


Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. 1998. Challenges for the Social Sciences and Australia. 2 vols. Canberra: AGPS.

Aitkin, D.A. 1985. 'Political science in Australia: Development and situation' in Surveys of Australian Political Science. Edited by D.A. Aitkin. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Ashley, D., and D.M. Orenstein. 2001. Sociological Theory. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Baldock, C.V. 1994. 'Sociology in Australia and New Zealand' in International Handbook of Contemporary Developments in Sociology. Edited by R.R. Mohan and A.S.Wilke.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Baxter, J., and T. McGee. 2001. The Australian Sociological Association Directory 2001. Brisbane: Australian Sociological Association.

Bourke, H. 1981. Sociology and the social sciences in Australia, 1912–1928. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 17:26–35.

Dogan, M., and R. Pahre. 1990. Creative Marginality:Innovation at the Intersections of Social Sciences. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Galligan, B. 1984.The state of Australian political thought. Politics 19:82–92.

Haralambos, M., R. van Krieken, P. Smith and M. Holborn. 1996. Sociology:Themes and Perspectives (Australian Edition). Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman Cheshire.

Hood, C., and C. Scott. 1996. Bureaucratic regulation and new public management in the United Kingdom: Mirror-image developments? Journal of Law and Society 23:321–45.

Katz, J.S. 1999. Bibliometric Indicators and the Social Sciences. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.

Kuhn, T. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mancias, P.T. 1991. 'The social science disciplines:The American model' in Discourses on Society:The Shaping of the Social Science Disciplines. Edited by P.Wagner, B.Wittrock and R.Whitley. London: Kluwer.


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