The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia

By Ian McAllister; Steve Dowrick et al. | Go to book overview
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Commission and the Australia Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, or in economic consulting companies staffed by former senior public servants, leaving academics freer to concentrate on research and on teaching the next generation of economists.


Without implicating him, thanks are due to Richard Snape for helpful comments on an earlier draft.

In 1999 Australia was ranked twenty-sixth, according to the World Bank Atlas method of measuring GNP per capita (or twentieth using the World Bank's purchasing power parity method) not counting the several rich countries with fewer than 1 million people (World Bank 2000b).
Earlier literature surveys can be found in Corden (1968) for writings up to the mid-1960s and, for the next decade, in Gruen (1978, 1983) and especially Lloyd (1978), Edwards and Watson (1978) and Smith (1983).
In fact the increased demand for non-tradables (and other products) would begin as soon as expectations about future income prospects rose, which could be well before the mining export boom shows up in the trade statistics in the case where the exports are preceded by FDI inflows for investments with a long lead-time (Corden 1982).
ERAs have been estimated for all Australian manufacturing industries at the two-digit, threedigit and four-digit levels of disaggregation each year since 1968–69, for all rural industries since 1970–71, and occasionally also for mining industries (whose ERAs are close to or below zero). Details can be freely downloaded from the website of Australia's Productivity Commission at commission also estimates and publishes the consumer-tax equivalent of industry-assistance policy measures including the tariff.The availability of such comprehensive estimates of ERAs has made it easier to use the economics of politics to explain the intrasectoral pattern of assistance to industries, as in Anderson (1980).
That transparency agency had an increasingly influential role within the government and in the wider community from the late 1960s until the 1980s (Glezer 1982, Warhurst 1982, Rattigan 1986), and it remains very influential today through publishing rational economic analyses on an ever-wider range of microeconomic policy issues.
See Arndt (1965), Snape (1984) and Anderson (1999). This and many other aspects of the history of Australia's trade policy are detailed in Crawford (1968) and Snape, Gropp and Luttrell (1998). A political scientist's perspective on Australia's engagement with the GATT/WTO is available in Capling (2001).


Anderson, K. 1980.The political market for government assistance to Australian manufacturing industries. Economic Record 56(153):132–44.

Anderson, K. 1987. 'Tariffs and the manufacturing sector' in The Australian Economy in the Long Run. Edited by R. Maddock and I. McLean. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, K. 1995. 'Australia's changing trade pattern and growth performance' in Australia's Trade Policies. Edited by R. Pomfret. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, K. 1999.The WTO agenda for the new millennium. Economic Record 75(228):77–88.

Anderson, K. 2001. 'Australia in the international economy' in Reshaping Australia's Economy: Growth with Equity and Sustainability. Edited by J. Nieuwenhuysen, P.J. Lloyd and M. Mead. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.


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