The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia

By Ian McAllister; Steve Dowrick et al. | Go to book overview

cultural, political and social importance. The network of global cities that has emerged is dominated by a small number of major global cities.

Fourth, the emergence of global cities has been accompanied by the rise of a new social inequality: social polarisation. This is characterised by a growing gap between a large and increasingly wealthy group of people in highly skilled, secure employment, and a significant group of low-income, low-skilled people who are either perennially unemployed or in insecure employment.

Fifth, there is the growing importance of community – for two reasons. First, governments are demanding individual self-sufficiency and the establishment of strong communities for providing social support in times of need. Second, community – as the geographic area immediately around the home – is becoming increasingly important in terms of the way people define quality of life. There is a growing emphasis on the importance of a safe and attractive physical (built and natural) environment, and a community that provides extensive local opportunities for consumption. Furthermore, the emergence of new occupational and class structures has created new communities, the most striking arguably being the inner-city ('gentrified') community, an area that is now middle class but was previously working class.

Sixth, and related to the previous point, cities are becoming increasingly important as places for the consumption of fun. This is particularly apparent in the rapid growth of urban areas exclusively devoted to tourism.

Seventh, all of these developments have together effected a new urban politics, this being most apparent in debates over social capital and the 'Third Way'. However, it is also evident in government's attempts at implementing policies to achieve sustainable urban development.

Finally, the physical transformation of cities over the past quarter of a century, including the growth of new types of urban areas, has meant that the built environment today is imbued with strikingly different visual meanings from the built environments of the past. This outcome, in turn, has encouraged a number of urban sociologists to examine the symbolic meanings carried by the new built forms, relative to those of the past. Of course, this not a new perspective in urban sociology, for it was a component (albeit small) of early urban sociology, but it is an approach that has been neglected for decades.

Which of these eight stances will come to play a dominant role in Australian urban and regional sociology, or even whether other new developments will emerge, is yet to be seen. Either way, a new Australian urban and regional sociology is being formulated, one which – inevitably, in these global times – is tied to an international renaissance of the field.


References

Alexander, M., R. Nicholas and J.Walter. 1984. The Queensland capitalist class: Spectator or actor in regional differentiation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 20:332–49.

Aungles, S. 1979. The social consequences of industrial development and decline. Journal of Australian Political Economy 4:38–53.

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The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Figures and Tables vii
  • Contributors x
  • Preface and Acknowledgements xviii
  • Introduction 1
  • References 13
  • Part 1 - Economics 15
  • Chapter 1 - Privatisation 17
  • References 27
  • Chapter 2 - Competition Policy and Regulation 31
  • References 40
  • Chapter 3 - Economics and the Environment 45
  • References 57
  • Chapter 4 - Health Economics 60
  • References 70
  • Chapter 5 - Immigration 74
  • References 87
  • Chapter 6 - Labour Market and Industrial Relations 94
  • References 113
  • Chapter 7 - Income Distribution and Redistribution 118
  • References 134
  • Chapter 8 - Taxation 138
  • References 148
  • Chapter 9 - Innovation 153
  • References 165
  • Chapter 10 - International Trade and Industry Policies 168
  • References 180
  • Chapter 11 - The Macro Economy 186
  • Notes 199
  • References 200
  • Chapter 12 - Money and Banking 203
  • References 216
  • Part 2 - Political Science 221
  • Chapter 13 - Political Theory 223
  • References 231
  • Chapter 14 - Federalism and the Constitution 234
  • References 246
  • Chapter 15 - Legislative Institutions 249
  • References 260
  • Chapter 16 - Political Parties and Electoral Behaviour 266
  • References 283
  • Chapter 17 - Electoral Systems 287
  • References 302
  • Chapter 18 - Gender Politics 305
  • References 319
  • Chapter 19 - Interest Groups and Social Movements 323
  • References 339
  • Chapter 20 - Environmental Policy and Politics 345
  • References 355
  • Chapter 21 - International Relations 358
  • Notes 368
  • References 369
  • Chapter 22 - Political Economy 374
  • References 391
  • Chapter 23 - Public Policy and Public Administration 406
  • References 422
  • Part 3 - Sociology 431
  • Chapter 24 - Patterns of Social Inequality 433
  • References 457
  • Chapter 25 - Families and Households 462
  • References 477
  • Chapter 26 - Gender Perspectives 480
  • References 493
  • Chapter 27 - Work and Employment 499
  • Notes 511
  • References 512
  • Chapter 28 - Crime and Deviance 518
  • References 531
  • Chapter 29 - Health and Illness 536
  • References 552
  • Chapter 30 - Population 554
  • References 569
  • Chapter 31 - Race, Ethnicity and Immigration 573
  • Notes 585
  • References 586
  • Chapter 32 - Urban and Regional Sociology 590
  • Reference 598
  • Chapter 33 - Rural Sociology 604
  • Reference 619
  • Chapter 34 - Religion and Spirituality 626
  • Reference 632
  • Chapter 35 - Cultural Studies, Australian Studies and Cultural Sociology 638
  • References 651
  • Chapter 36 - Sociological Theory 654
  • References 664
  • Chapter 37 - Social Policy and Social Welfare 666
  • References 674
  • Author Index 678
  • Subject Index 696
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