public-spirited sections of society. The growth of consumerism and of aspirations to adopt western-inspired life-styles also places new pressures on the environment. The problem of limited resources, combined with pressure to prioritise those environmental issues that are of greatest concern to western agencies, is also problematic. It diverts attention and resources away from environmental issues that are of domestic concern and reinforces the culture of political passivity that was the hallmark of the old regime, particularly in the Balkans region.
The kinds of substantive changes that are needed, both in civil society and the political system, to help overcome the problems of environmental management, cannot be achieved in the short term. In the meantime, we can expect to see that transition will result in the traditional business of government increasingly being combined with new network styles of environmental governance. The transition process will undoubtedly continue to involve periods of progress on environmental issues and seemingly backward slides. The marked differences in the nature of the transition process across the region as a whole will also continue to be manifest. In this context, the achievement of more sustainable management of the environment is thus far from guaranteed. Here it becomes important to acknowledge that there is no single solution, no authoritative 'right' answer that can be imposed on the complex task of environmental management in the transition countries. Rather, multiple, risky, complex and innovative solutions are required, which have to arise not only from 'top-down' reform but also from 'bottom-up' innovation and change. To the extent to which the transition process facilitates a shift in the style of environmental management - from that based on traditional modes of government to more participatory forms of governance - then such innovative responses may take hold.