Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

nization were more successful in sub-Saharan Africa, where they have resulted in the maintenance of a real economic and cultural influence, often as well as a significant military presence. While the truly federal 'French Community' outlined by de Gaulle never came into being, its notional existence allowed the rapid achievement of full independence by the territories involved, while continued French economic and technical assistance have provided the basis of the modern project of co-operation most often referred to nowadays as la francophonie. In a few cases, of course, the avowed French project of assimilation was actually carried through, with such fragments of the colonial empire as Martinique and Guadeloupe now firmly established as fully integrated overseas départements or territories (DOM-TOMs).

PHILIP DINE


Further reading

a
Ageron, C.-R. (1991) La Décolonisation française, Paris: Armand Colin (a concise French-language account).

c
Clayton, A. (1994) The Wars of French Decolonization, London: Longman (best and most up-to-date English-language account).

h
Hargreaves, J. (1996) Decolonization in Africa, 2nd edition, London: Longman.

k
Kahler, M. (1986) Decolonization in Britain and France: The Domestic Consequences of International Relations, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

m
Marseille, J. (1986) Empire colonial et capitalisme français: histoire d'un divorce, Paris: Albin Michel.

p
Pervillé, G. (1991) De l'empire français à la décolonisation, Paris: Hachette.

r
Ruscio, A. (1987) La Décolonisation tragique, 1945-1962, Paris: Messidor/Éditions Sociales.

Decroux, Étienne

b. 1898, Paris;

d. 1991, Boulogne

Actor and mime expert

An actor famous for pioneering physical theatre and mime, who worked with many famous theatre directors including Copeau and Barrault, as well as in films such as Carné's Les Enfants du Paradis. After the war, he opened his own school, and produced famous mimodrames such as Les Arbres (The Trees), L'Usine (The Factory) and Le Combat antique d'Antoine et Cléopatre (The Ancient Struggle between Antony and Cleopatra).

ANNIE SPARKS

See also: theatre

defence and security

French security policy since 1945 has paralleled France's modernization, mirroring changes in foreign policy and moves towards European union. The nuclear deterrent and conventional capabilities created by de Gaulle and their associated security strategies have driven important developments in French society and political culture. In the post-Cold War international system, France is attempting to redefine its security stance.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, France recognized that, despite traditional enmity with Germany, the USSR was now the foe. This culture shift was not universally shared, particularly by some on the Right, but French support for NATO (1949) illustrated new realities. During incipient European integration, France's ambiguous (and finally fatal) attitude towards the EDC (1954) showed persisting mistrust of Germany and French desire for independent control over her armed forces. Until after the Algerian war (1954-62), defence required forces capable of waging colonial wars: in Indochina (1947-54) the professional

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface x
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Classified Contents List xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 3
  • Further Reading 13
  • Further Reading 18
  • Further Reading 26
  • Further Reading 27
  • Further Reading 30
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 66
  • Further Reading 70
  • Major Works 79
  • C 85
  • Further Reading 91
  • Further Reading 99
  • Further Reading 111
  • Further Reading 113
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 144
  • Further Reading 150
  • Major Works 152
  • E 168
  • Further Reading 194
  • F 197
  • Further Reading 200
  • Further Reading 207
  • Major Works 214
  • Further Reading 245
  • G 252
  • Further Reading 279
  • Further Reading 280
  • H 283
  • I 290
  • Further Reading 297
  • J 302
  • Further Reading 303
  • Major Works 307
  • K 310
  • Further Reading 317
  • L 318
  • Major Works 324
  • Major Works 325
  • M 350
  • Further Reading 352
  • Further Reading 354
  • Major Works 364
  • Further Reading 379
  • Further Reading 380
  • N 388
  • Further Reading 397
  • O 401
  • P 404
  • Further Reading 419
  • Major Works 424
  • Q 449
  • R 450
  • Further Reading 462
  • Further Reading 469
  • Major Works 470
  • Major Works 472
  • Further Reading 474
  • S 478
  • Further Reading 484
  • Further Reading 508
  • T 515
  • U 540
  • V 544
  • Further Reading 549
  • Further Reading 554
  • W 555
  • Further Reading 560
  • X 568
  • Y 569
  • Index 572
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