nization were more successful in sub-Saharan Africa, where they have resulted in the maintenance of a real economic and cultural influence, often as well as a significant military presence. While the truly federal 'French Community' outlined by de Gaulle never came into being, its notional existence allowed the rapid achievement of full independence by the territories involved, while continued French economic and technical assistance have provided the basis of the modern project of co-operation most often referred to nowadays as la francophonie. In a few cases, of course, the avowed French project of assimilation was actually carried through, with such fragments of the colonial empire as Martinique and Guadeloupe now firmly established as fully integrated overseas départements or territories (DOM-TOMs).
b. 1898, Paris;
d. 1991, Boulogne
Actor and mime expert
An actor famous for pioneering physical theatre and mime, who worked with many famous theatre directors including Copeau and Barrault, as well as in films such as Carné's Les Enfants du Paradis. After the war, he opened his own school, and produced famous mimodrames such as Les Arbres (The Trees), L'Usine (The Factory) and Le Combat antique d'Antoine et Cléopatre (The Ancient Struggle between Antony and Cleopatra).
See also: theatre
defence and security
French security policy since 1945 has paralleled France's modernization, mirroring changes in foreign policy and moves towards European union. The nuclear deterrent and conventional capabilities created by de Gaulle and their associated security strategies have driven important developments in French society and political culture. In the post-Cold War international system, France is attempting to redefine its security stance.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, France recognized that, despite traditional enmity with Germany, the USSR was now the foe. This culture shift was not universally shared, particularly by some on the Right, but French support for NATO (1949) illustrated new realities. During incipient European integration, France's ambiguous (and finally fatal) attitude towards the EDC (1954) showed persisting mistrust of Germany and French desire for independent control over her armed forces. Until after the Algerian war (1954-62), defence required forces capable of waging colonial wars: in Indochina (1947-54) the professional