See also: green issues; parties and movements
b. 1917, Tula, Lithuania;
An influential French semanticist and semiologist who taught at the École Pratique des Hautes Études and worked in the 1960s alongside Barthes, Todorov and Genette on the structure of narratives. Two of his theoretical models exploring deep and surface structures, the semiotic square and the actantial model, have been widely used and applied to a range of subdisciplines within semiotics.
See also: linguistic/discourse theory; structuralism
b. 1920, Paris
Journalist, novelist and essayist
The author of novels co-written with her sister Flora in the 1960s-Diary in Duo (journal a quatre mains); Feminine Plural (Le Féminin pluriel); II était deux fois (Twice Upon a Time)-as well as of single-authored fictions-including 1972's La Part des chases (All Things Considered), and the erotic novel Salt on Our Skin (Les Vaisseaux du coeur), published in 1988-Groult is perhaps best known for two feminist essays. These texts-Ainsi soit-elle (So Be She) and Le Féminisme au masculin (Feminism in the Masculine Mode)-contributed to the rise of feminist awareness in 1970s France. A dedicated campaigner for equal rights, Groult became president of the Commission for the Feminization of Job Designations in 1985.
See also: erotic writing; feminist thought; women's/lesbian writing
b. 1939, Paris
Over three decades, Grumberg has been writing plays, such as Zone libre (Free Zone) and Linge sale (Dirty Linen), television scripts and a screenplay in 1988 (Les Années sandwichs). His work displays differing formats and subjects, employing humour to make social observation.