Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

ANNIE SPARKS

See also: theatre


Further reading

k
Kiernander, A. (1995) Ariane Mnouchkine and the Théâtre du Soleil, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (essential reading).

Modiano, Patrick

b. 1947, Boulogne-sur-Seine

Writer

Modiano's early work-such as La Place de l'étoile (1968) and Les Boulevards de ceinture (The Ring Road) (1972)-was among the first to deal graphically with the period of the Occupation, before it became virtually de rigueur to do so. His screenplay for Malle's Lacombe Lucien (1973) brought this theme to an even wider audience. His more recent work, such as Une jeunesse (Youth) (1981) or Un cirque passe (A Passing Circus) (1992), may have a more contemporary setting, but is unceasingly worked and reworked by memories of the past.

KEITH READER

Mollet, Guy

b. 1905, Flers, Normandy;

d. 1975, Paris

Politician

As leader of the Parti Socialiste-SFIO between 1946 and 1969, Mollet presided over the decline of a party caught between its unrevised revolutionary doctrine and its reformist practice. As prime minister in 1956 he stepped up the repression of the independence movement in French Algeria. In the same year he joined with the British to organize the ill-fated Suez expedition. He facilitated de Gaulle's return to power in the wake of the May 1958 crisis, but in the 1960s took his party into electoral agreements with the Communists in order to combat the Gaullists. His absolute loyalty to the traditions of his own party tended to block any significant renewal of the Left.

LAURENCE BELL

See also: Algerian war; parties and movements


Further reading

q
Quilliot, R. (1972) La SFIO et l'exercice du pouvoir, Paris: Fayard (an insider's account of the SFIO in the period 1944-58).

Monde, Le

Newspaper

An opinion-forming daily of international repute, Le Monde is the most comprehensive French newspaper, providing in-depth analysis of national news and unparalleled international coverage. An evening paper, it is an indispensable, authoritative source of information for the ruling classes, intellectuals and highly educated sections of the population, and can be relied upon to publish official reports from organizations otherwise neglected by the press.

Austere in appearance, with a dense layout and rare photographs, its tone is sober, restrained, even dry, and its style polished, elevated and analytical. Committed to a noble conception of journalism, Le Monde aspires to balanced, impartial reporting, and does not hesitate to criticize. While independent of political parties, it is the forum for much political debate. It is socially progressive and left of centre, demonstrating a commitment to justice and human rights.

The newspaper was founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry on 18 December 1944 at the

-380-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface x
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Classified Contents List xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 3
  • Further Reading 13
  • Further Reading 18
  • Further Reading 26
  • Further Reading 27
  • Further Reading 30
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 66
  • Further Reading 70
  • Major Works 79
  • C 85
  • Further Reading 91
  • Further Reading 99
  • Further Reading 111
  • Further Reading 113
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 144
  • Further Reading 150
  • Major Works 152
  • E 168
  • Further Reading 194
  • F 197
  • Further Reading 200
  • Further Reading 207
  • Major Works 214
  • Further Reading 245
  • G 252
  • Further Reading 279
  • Further Reading 280
  • H 283
  • I 290
  • Further Reading 297
  • J 302
  • Further Reading 303
  • Major Works 307
  • K 310
  • Further Reading 317
  • L 318
  • Major Works 324
  • Major Works 325
  • M 350
  • Further Reading 352
  • Further Reading 354
  • Major Works 364
  • Further Reading 379
  • Further Reading 380
  • N 388
  • Further Reading 397
  • O 401
  • P 404
  • Further Reading 419
  • Major Works 424
  • Q 449
  • R 450
  • Further Reading 462
  • Further Reading 469
  • Major Works 470
  • Major Works 472
  • Further Reading 474
  • S 478
  • Further Reading 484
  • Further Reading 508
  • T 515
  • U 540
  • V 544
  • Further Reading 549
  • Further Reading 554
  • W 555
  • Further Reading 560
  • X 568
  • Y 569
  • Index 572
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