Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

PHIL POWRIE

See also: cinema


Further reading

m
Morin, E. (1961) The Stars, New York: Grove Press (a standard introduction; originally published in French in 1957).

street papers

Macadam Journal, Le Réverbère, La Rue and Faim de siècle, launched in rapid succession in 1993, followed by Le Lampadaire in 1994, are the main French street papers, commonly referred to as la presse SDF. SDF means people sans domicile fixe (of no fixed abode). These alternative newspapers, championing the cause of the homeless, are sold in the streets by homeless vendors in return for a percentage of the cover price, normally 60 per cent. Their aim is to provide a source of revenue, and act as an instrument of social integration for vendors, giving them self-respect and facilitating contacts with the public.

PAM MOORES

See also: restaurants du coeur

structuralism

An influential intellectual movement dominant in France from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. The origins of structuralism are multiple, and some commentators (such as Piaget and Serres) rightly insist on its transdisciplinary basis (e.g. in physics, mathematics and biology). However, the main path of assimilation of structuralism into the human sciences in France was via linguistic theory, and in this version at least it could more precisely be called linguistic structuralism.

The basic elements of linguistic structuralism can be found in the pioneering work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the Course in General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale), published in 1916. Saussure distinguished between two aspects or levels of language, langue and parole. Parole refers to the external and contingent aspect of language production in activities such as speech and writing, while langue-the principal object of linguistic science-is the set of patterns or rules which precedes and makes possible the realization of language in parole. For Saussure, langue is a system, in which it is the relations between elements, and not the elements themselves, that are responsible for meaning. On the semantic level, an individual word (e.g. 'horse') only makes sense in terms of its difference from other, related concepts (e.g. donkey, ass, unicorn, automobile, etc.). On the phonetic level, difference of meaning is generated by the substitution of minimally distinct units of sound: 'horse', 'Norse', 'course', etc. From this differential explanation of signification follows the central postulate of Saussure's linguistic theory, the arbitrariness of the sign. Word and concept (or 'signifier' and 'signified') have no essential connection other than their habitual association within the system of langue. An important aspect of Saussure's distinction between langue and parole is that it also implies a distinction between the individual and the collective. Saussure reiterates that langue is by nature a social construct, whereas parole, the exercise or execution of langue, is individual and variable.

Probably the most important mediation of Saussurean linguistics in postwar French thought came from the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss. Inspired by the phonological theory of the Russian linguist Roman Jakobson, in his first book, The Elementary Structures of Kinship (Les Structures élémentaires de la parenté), Lévi-Strauss argued that it is possible to isolate a small number of elementary and invariant structures from which the diversity of observable kinship structures might be derived. He then went on to extend his application of the linguistic model to other areas of social life. Already in the Cours Saussure had indicated that linguistics dealt with only one of a number

-508-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 619

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.