The Eastern European Economy in Context: Communism and the Transition

By David Turnock | Go to book overview

1

INTRODUCTION

Eastern Europe to 1945

This book deals with the former communist countries of Eastern Europe apart from the successor states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). A total of thirteen states (including the eastern part of the now reunified Germany) embrace an area of 1.27mn.sq.km. and a population of 137.8mn. (1985) and with an overall density of 102 persons/sq.km. respectively. The maximum longitudinal spread of Eastern Europe is almost twenty degrees (about 1,300km.) and the distance from the Italian/Slovenian border to the Black Sea at 45 degrees north is some 1,200km. However, at its narrowest (in Hungary) the east-west extent is only 360km. North-south distances tend to be greater, from 40 degrees north in southern Albania to 55 degrees in northern Poland, a distance of some 1,650km. As was also the case before 1989, the region borders on Austria, Greece, Italy and Turkey. However, the unification of Germany means that the northwestern limits are now expressed through the boundaries of the 'New Lander', comprising the Former German Democratic Republic (FGDR). In the east, the breakup of the FSU means that Eastern Europe's neighbours are Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine, along with Russia by virtue of the Kaliningrad enclave. (See map 1.1.)

Eastern Europe may be regarded as a region with some coherence arising from the adoption, by monopoly communist parties, of elements of the former Soviet system of government, including socio-economic evolution through development of a command economy guided by central planning. There was some relaxation after Stalin's death in 1953 through Red Army withdrawals from the Balkans, though not from FGDR and countries needed for transit purposes. Maintenance of communist power was guaranteed by the Brezhnev doctrine which legitimised Warsaw Pact intervention in Former Czechoslovakia (FCSFR) in 1968 on the grounds that a threat to the system in one country was a challenge to the alliance as a whole. It was only the declaration by Mikhail Gorbachev (leader of the FSU in the late 1980s) that Eastern Europe was independent which led to radical change throughout Eastern Europe in 1989. It seems that a phase of world war, which has dominated the twentieth century, has at last come to a close, thanks primarily to the Russian decision to abandon a system which arose primarily as a response to the

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Eastern European Economy in Context: Communism and the Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Maps viii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • References 10
  • 2 - Eastern Europe Under Communism 12
  • 3 - The Transition 84
  • 4 - Transition to a Market Economy 136
  • 5 - National Profiles 177
  • 6 - National Profiles 218
  • 7 - Restructuring in Agriculture and Industry 261
  • 8 - Prospects for the Regions of Eastern Europe 323
  • Bibliography 361
  • Index 391
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 425

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.