European Union: Power and Policy-Making

By Jeremy J. Richardson | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
The ECSC was created by the 1951 Paris Treaty and the EEC and the EURATOM were both established by the 1957 Rome Treaty. The 1965 Merger Treaty created a common Council of Ministers and a common Commission serving all three European Communities. The 1957 'Convention on Certain Institutions Common to the European Communities' signed in parallel with the Treaty of Rome stipulated that the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the Economic and Social Committee would serve all three Communities.
2
Members of a customs union agree (i) to abolish all internal tariffs and other trade impediments; (ii) to establish a common trade policy towards the rest of the world. In the EC this takes the form of the Common External Tariff (CET). A Common Market implies greater integration. Members agree in addition to promote the free movement of capital and labour within the customs union. Achievement of a European Common Market was the primary objective of the 1986 SEA and the 1992 project.

REFERENCES

b
Bay Brzinski, J. (1995) 'Political group cohesion in the European Parliament 1989-1994', in Rhodes, C. and Mazey, S. (eds) The State of the European Union vol. 3: Building a European Polity?, Boulder: Lynne Reinner and Longman, 111-134.

c
Caporaso, J. and Keeler, J (1995) 'The EU and regional integration theory', in Rhodes, C. and Mazey, S. (eds) The State of the European Union, vol. 3: Building a European Polity?, Boulder: Lynne Reinner and Longmann, 29-62.

d
Dehousse, R. and Majone, G. (1994) 'The institutional dynamics of European integration', in Martin, S. (ed.) The Construction of Europe: Essays in Honour of Emile Noël, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 91-112.
Duchêne, F. (1994) Jean Monnet: the First Statesman of Interdependence, New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

f
Featherstone, K. (1994) 'Jean Monnet and the “democratic deficit” in the European Union', Journalof Common Market Studies, 32, 2:149-170.

g
George, S. (1990) An Awkward Partner: Britain in the European Community, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Green Cowles, M. (1995) 'Setting the agenda for a new Europe: the ERT and EC 1992', Journal ofCommon Market Studies, 33, 4:501-526.
Gustavsson, R (1996) 'The EU: 1996 and beyond-a personal view from the sideline' in Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (eds) The European Union: How Democratic is it?, London: Sage Publications.

h
Haas, E. (1958) The Uniting of Europe, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

k
Keohane R.O. and Hoffmann, S. (eds) (1991) The New European Community: Decisionmaking andInstitutional change, Boulder: Westview Press, 177-194.
Kingdon, J.W. (1984) Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies, New York: Harper Collins.
Kirchner, E. (1980) 'Interest group behaviour at the Community level', in L. Hurwitz (ed.) Contemporary Perspectives on European Integration: Attitudes, Non-governmental Behaviour andCollective Decision Making, London: Greenwood Press, 96-119.

l
Lipgens, W. (1982) A History of European Integration 1945-1947: the Formation of the EuropeanUnity Movement, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

m
Majone, G. (1992) 'Regulatory federalism in the European Community', Government and Policy, 10: 299-316.
Mazey, S. (1992) 'Conception and evolution of the High Authority's administrative services (1952-1960): from supranational principles to multinational Practices', in Yearbook of EuropeanAdministrative History, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft 31-48.
Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (1993) Lobbying in the European Community, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mazey, S and Richardson, J. (1996) 'Interest groups and the 1996 IGC', in Pijpers, A. and Edwards, G. (eds) The European Union and the Agenda of 1996, London: Pinter.
Milward, A. (1992) The European Rescue of the Nation-State, London: Routledge.
Monnet, J. (1978 ed.) Memoirs, New York: Doubleday, 93, 286, 295. Cited in Burgess, M. (1992) Federalism and European Union, 2nd edn., London: Routledge, 54.
Moravcsik, A. (1991) 'Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and conventional statecraft', International Organisation, 45:19-56.

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