European Union: Power and Policy-Making

By Jeremy J. Richardson | Go to book overview

institutional framework and the uniformity of application of the acquis (even if at different speeds)-so difficult perhaps that the 1996 IGC may well prefer to put off any radical decisions for as long as possible.


NOTES
1
It was therefore particularly ironic that one of the rare occasions when a Member government was overruled when invoking the Luxembourg Compromise was Mrs Thatcher's government in 1982, over agricultural prices. As the UK was at the same time involved in the Falklands conflict, in which the support of the other EC members was more than useful, Mrs Thatcher did not make much of it, at least in public.
2
The Genscher-Colombo initiative launched by respectively, the then German and Italian Foreign Ministers, sought, inter alia, to set European political co-operation on a legal footing, to limit the use of unanimity and to expedite the completion of the internal market. Elements of it were superseded by other agreements and the initiative itself ended up merely as the Solemn Declaration on European Union (see Bonvicini: 1987).
3
The Council acts as a legislator according to its Rules of Procedure when it adopts rules which are legally binding on the basis of the relevant provisions of the Treaties, especially Article 43, 189b and c, though with certain exceptions. Votes are not made public on other non-binding acts such as conclusions or recommendations or if the votes are indicative or on the adoption of preparatory acts.
4
Approximately, because the numbers supplied from different sources rarely coincide, the Commission estimating eighty-five sessions in 1990, for example, while the Council reckoned it had met ninety-one times. See Edwards and Pearson (1991, 1992) and the chapter on the Council by Romesch and Wessels in Edwards and Spence (1994).
5
The 113 Committee's central position in trade matters was formally recognised in the 1994 Trade Barriers Regulation, which allows industries to demand investigation into trade barriers in third countries-I am grateful to Michael Johnson, formerly of the DTI for this point.
6
Typically the Council and the Commission disagreed over the numbers of different procedures in operation, the Council listing twenty-three, the Commission, twenty-nine in their respective reports to the Reflection Group.

REFERENCES

b
Bonvicini, Gianni (1987) 'The Genscher Colombo Plan and “The Solemn Declaration on European Union” (1981-83)' in Pryce, Roy (ed.) The Dynamics of European Union London: Croom Helm.
Buchan, David (1993) Europe: The Strange Superpower Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Bulmer, Simon (1996) 'The European Council and the Council of the European Union: The Gatekeepers of a European Federal Order?' Publius: forthcoming.
Bulmer, Simon and Wessels, Wolfgang (1987) The European Council London: Macmillan.

c
CDU-CSU Fraktion of the German Bundestag (1994) Reflections on European Policy Bonn 1 September 1994.
Committee of Three (1979) Report on European Institutions Brussels.
Corbett, Richard (1989) 'Testing the New Procedures: the European Parliament's first experiences with its new Single Act powers' Journal of Common Market Studies Vol. 27, no. 4.

e
Edwards, Geoffrey and Wallace, Helen (1977) The Council of Ministers of the European Communityand the President in Office London: Federal Trust.
Edwards, Geoffrey and Pearson, Brendon (1991) 'Der Ministerrat' in Weidenfeld, Werner and Wessels, Wolfgang (eds) Jahrbuch der Europäischen Integration 1989-90 Bonn: IEP/Europa Union Verlag.
Edwards, Geoffrey and Pearson, Brendon (1992a) 'Der Ministerrat' in Weidenfeld, Werner and Wessels, Wolfgang (eds) Jahrbuch der Europäischen Integration 1989-90 Bonn: IEP/Europa Union Verlag.
Edwards, Geoffrey (1992b) 'Central Government' in George, Stephen, Britain and the EuropeanCommunity; the Politics of Semi-Detachment Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Edwards, Geoffrey and Lund, Camilla (1993) 'Der Ministerrat' in Weidenfeld, Werner and Wessels, Wolfgang (eds) Jahrbuch der Europäischen Integration 1989-90 Bonn: IEP/Europa Union Verlag.
Edwards, Geoffrey and Spence, David (eds) (1994) The European Commission London: Longman.

-145-

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