Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?

By Lloyd Dixon; Isaac Porche et al. | Go to book overview

3.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEETING ZEV PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS AND
PRODUCTION VOLUME ESTIMATES

This section provides an overview of the vehicle technologies that auto manufacturers may use to meet the ZEV program requirements. (These technologies are described in greater detail in Section 4, where we develop cost estimates.) This section also presents the production volumes we used in our analysis, which are important in determining vehicle unit cost. The production projections are not meant to be precise estimates of the numbers of vehicles that will be produced to meet the program requirements. Rather, they are rough estimates of the number of vehicles that may be produced if a particular technology is used in a meaningful way to meet the requirements.


3.1 TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEETING ZEV PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

As discussed in Subsection 1.1, CARB has created three technology categories within the ZEV program: ZEVs, partial zero emission vehicles (PZEVs), and advanced technology partial zero emission vehicles (ATPZEVs). Large-volume manufacturers must meet a minimum portion of the program requirements with ZEVs and have the option to satisfy other portions with PZEVs and ATPZEVs. The following paragraphs describe the types of vehicles that manufacturers might plausibly produce in each category.


ZEVs

ZEVs can be based on a number of energy storage technologies (e.g., batteries, capacitors, flywheels, fuel cells), but only battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs) and fuel-cell vehicles are actively being pursued by the large-volume manufacturers. We first discuss the various types of BPEVs that may be used to meet program requirements, before turning to fuel-cell vehicles.1

Battery–Powered Electric Vehicles. Until a few years ago, the only vehicles that manufacturers considered for meeting ZEV program requirements were BPEVs similar in size to many vehicles on the road today and freeway capable. These “full-function EVs” typically have top speeds greater than 65 miles per hour, meet U.S. highway safety standards, include amenities such as air conditioning, and have reasonable acceleration (although often less than that of a comparable internal combustion engine vehicle, or ICEV). The major shortcoming of these vehicles is their range—i.e., the distance they can travel on a single charge. While battery

____________________
1
ZEVs may have emissions associated with the production, marketing, and distribution of the fuel they use. For example, power plants generate emissions when producing electricity. These indirect emissions are discussed in Subsection 5.1.

-21-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 139

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.